CLA160 Lecture 5 Notes

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24 Jan 2013
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CLA160 Lecture 5 Notes
Topics
1. the Greek City-States
2. the Dark Age
3. Archaic Greece
4. Greek colonization
5. Sparta
6. Athens
7. Hesiod
8. Homer
Dark Age (1200-800 B.C.)
- art of writing lost – “dark” to us
- archaeology – survey archaeology (settlements, geographical living areas,
etc.)
- Lefkandi – grave sites from around 950 B.C. – anomaly for Dark Age
satellite burials around the Lefkandi house
burial with weapons – transitional site – aspects of Mycenaean society
veranda/columns – transitional site – aspects of Classical Greece
The Iliad – funeral pyre of Patroclus – in Homer’s account – throw four
horses on pyre – at Lefkandi third burial site – skeletons of four horses
– preserve tradition of warriors
human sacrifice mentioned with The Iliad – suggested that Lefkandi
second site that contains female skeleton adorned in jewelry – woman
perhaps a human sacrifice – maybe even buried alive
Archaic Greece I
- resurgence in settlement – scarcer in Dark Age
- settlements – appear to be city-states
- city-state vs. city
- city-state characteristics
city as well as the peripheral territory
fortification – walls and citadel
citadel is typically the first area to be created/settled – high land
(acropolis in Athens)
temples, monuments
self-government, politics, and judicial system
citizens – thought in terms of Athenians and not Athens itself – elite
men were citizens, no women/slaves as citizens
all citizens – consider themselves to be equal
- rise of the city-state – likely reasons for development – military, religious,
political – likely are combination of all three
Military Exploration
- Hoplite warfare
- Hoplite – type of soldier characterized by the use of a hoplos shield – only
covered the left side of the body and the right side of the man next to him –
shield held on the left arm
- hoplos shield – used in the phalanx formation designed for fighting in groups
– differs from the Homeric battles during the Trojan War
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- Hoplite warfare – change in military tactics and impact on society – soldiers
have the same armour and must cooperate – all on the same level despite
the individual’s fame or prestige
- cooperative vs. competitive ethic – everyone is more or less and equal – not
just aristocrats and the lower society – therefore they developed a form of
communal living
Religion and Ritual Explanation
- temples the first to be built – first use of resources
- not a cognitive shared belief – shared action/ritual – gathering place
- city-state may have developed around temple/communal ritual – activity and
marking themselves as a certain people – identity
Communal Living – Politics and Judicial Systems
- laws of Dreros on Crete – 650-600 B.C.
- earliest form of law found
- limits on power – can be magistrate (kosmos) for a limited time (in this case,
ten years)
- holding office – limited power
- development of judicial system
Greek Colonization
- with the rise of city-states came the rise of colonization
- colonies are city-states that spread but are still somehow connected to the
mainland
- mark of a polis was the ability to colonize a subsidiary polis
- many city-states were established on sea trade routed, high ground, or fertile
land – distinguishes important reasons for colonies – defense, trade, and land
acquisition
- overpopulation – people sent out to look for more fertile land – set up colony
and found a new city-state
- in The Odyssey – Odysseus thinks as a Greek colonizer in the story of
Polyphemus
- much competition to find the most fertile land
Archaic Age II – Athens an Sparta
- Athens and Sparta become two dominant city-states
- sources are not contemporary figures – they use sources themselves
Aristotle – 800 years later, in 4th century B.C.
Polybius – Hellenistic Age, in 2nd century B.C.
Plutarch – 700-800 years later, in the 1st/2nd century A.D.
- best evidence for this period is contemporary poetry – the most common
media
Sparta
- mythical lawgiver Lycurgus
- lawgiver – name given to just, able people to constitute way of life
- double hereditary kingship in Sparta – uncommon in this time, no longer in
the era of kings – hereditary generalship – more like military commanders
- five ephors – swore on behalf of the city – kept the “kings” in check
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Document Summary

Topics: the greek city-states, the dark age, archaic greece, greek colonization, sparta, athens, hesiod, homer. Dark age (1200-800 b. c. ) art of writing lost dark to us archaeology survey archaeology (settlements, geographical living areas, etc. ) Lefkandi grave sites from around 950 b. c. Preserve tradition of warriors: human sacrifice mentioned with the iliad suggested that lefkandi second site that contains female skeleton adorned in jewelry woman perhaps a human sacrifice maybe even buried alive. Differs from the homeric battles during the trojan war. With the rise of city-states came the rise of colonization colonies are city-states that spread but are still somehow connected to the mainland. Mark of a polis was the ability to colonize a subsidiary polis. Much competition to find the most fertile land. Spartan women well treated tradition women would train similarly to young men. Athens first athenian law code drakos (621/620 b. c. )

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