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CLA160H1 Lecture Notes - Sea Peoples, Egyptian Hieroglyphs, Ziggurat

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Johnathon Burgess

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Lecture #2 Mesopotamia
o Social structure Public places, property, non-nomadic
o Crafts Tools, scribes, etc.
o Communication shared/common language, literacy
o Government politics, organizations, type of gov., religion, law
o Class structure crafts, gov., social levels, finance
o Technology architecture, weapons, metal, ships, etc
o Military
o City-state empires
The big picture
o Hominids
o Homo sapiens last 100,000 years
o Paleolithic “old stone” (age)
o Neolithic “new stone” (age)
Agricultural revolution ca. 9k BC (9th millennia)
o E.g. Jericho, Stonehenge, Catalhuyuk in textbook.
o Chronology
BP=before present;
Ancient methods; eg. Greek Olympiads, roman consuls, “Julian” calendar
CF=Conferre “bring together, compare”
CA=Circa “around”;
o City-State
o Mesopotamia: Middle river place
o Sumer, Sumerian 1st, dominant in 3rd millennium BC.
o Akkad, Akkadian 2nd, dominant in 2nd Millennium BC. tried to preserve the Sumerian
civilization, incorporated it into life.
o Semitic, Indo-European, Sea peoples
o City-states, empire
o Monarchy, but shared power systems
o Polytheistic, anthropomorphic religion (many gods; similar to greek)
o Literature: cf. Gilgamesh Epic, Homeric epics
o Writing systems, pictographic, phonetic
o Later direct interaction:
Persian invasions 5th c.
Conquered by Alexander the Great
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