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CLA160H1 Lecture Notes - Phalanx, Aspis, Lefkandi

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Johnathon Burgess

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Lecture #4
The Dark Age 1200-800 BC
o Not enough artifacts found to piece together the time period
o Lefkandi: the burials
Grave site that was excavated found art, jewels, and riches
The Archaic Age 1: Greek City Sates 800-480
o Resurgence of culture
o “City state” vs. city
Centre and periphery; fortifications walls and citadel; temples,
Self-government, politics and judicial system
Citizens Athenian not Athens: elite men (no women or slaves)
o Why?
Military; religious; political
o City is not just the city itself but the people in and around it.
o Hoplite Warfare:
Infantry warfare (hoplon shield) phalanx formation (Spartans)
Incredibly strong changed form a competitive ethic to a cooperative
ethic. United the people societally
o Religion and ritual
Temples were the first use of resources
Not only religious places but a gathering place as well.
More ritualistic a shared identity
o Communal living politics and judicial systems
o Rise of colonisation in Greece (All of Hellas)
Sign of a polis but simultaneous
Harbour, topography, fertility
Defence, trade, and land
Homer Polyphemous (on Cyclops book 9) *refer to course reader notes*
The Archaic Age 2:
o Sparta: the model military state
Lycurgus a mythical lawgiver
2 kings hereditary generalship?
Five ephors: swear on behalf of city
Colonisation solidifies militarisation: Messenian Wars
Hoplite class is entire citizen body
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