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Lecture 4

CLA160H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Trojan War, Apollo 1, Tlatoani


Department
Classics
Course Code
CLA160H1
Professor
Timothy Perry
Lecture
4

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Ryan Breen
Timothy Perry
CLA236
January 25, 2010
Class Notes
Midterm
Will include everything from lectures
o Lecture on Hesiod and the Theogony
o And the whole Iliad
Format
Test will be 1 hr long
Worth 25% of total mark
Score marked out of 50 points
2 sections
o Short answer 20 marks
1. Tests factual knowledge (that you’ve done the reading)
2. Concentrates on the main figures in each of the poems
EX: Which hero wounds Aphrodite in book 3 of the iliad?
What is an epiphyte? Facts about the poetry
Questions about the background (1st class)
Most questions will be on content
o Commentary 30 marks
1. Given 5 passages taken from primary readings
2. Have to choose 3 of them
3. Comment on what the significance is
4. Each worth 10 marks
5. Apply things discussed in the lectures to passage
6. EX: talk about oral composition
7. EX: talk about formulas a noun and a epiphate
8. Relate all of it to oral theory
9. Talk about themes
10. Talk about the heroic code and behaviour expected from heroes
11. Intergenerational conflict (Hesiod)
12. Verbal structure how the passage relates to the broader structure of the poem
13. Length 1 ½ page ( double spaced ) each
14. Concentrate on the actual passage you have in front of you ( keep it relevant)

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ILIAD BOOKS 9- 16
Book 9
Achilles is still in isolation, because of his argument with Agamemnon
This allowed the Trojans to fight better in Achilles absence
Acheans have built a wall to protect their ships, in fear of that the war might turn because the Trojans have been
fighting better
The Achean Wall
Building may look back to beginning of war
o Building of a wall is usually the first thing usually done to establish a camp by the sea for the arriving
army
Destruction looks forward to end of war
o Wall is destroyed by Poseidon and Apollo
1. Poseidon is worried that this wall will be more famous than the wall of try which he helped
build.
Influence of Near Eastern myths of destruction
o Plan of zeus at beginning of poem in prologue, relates to Near Eastern Influence
o Destruction of the wall may be based on these same myths of general destruction
o When this wall protecting the ships is first built, Poseidon complains,
o Built by the Achaeans, who do not offer a sacrifice
o This is Poseidon’s problem
o Wall is destroyed through the flood
o A number of rivers in troy is diverted to wash away the wall
o The represents a near eastern influence, because the world is destroyed by the people being unreligious
( not offering a sacrifice)
Iliad 9 is particulary important in the structure of the Iliad, but it also poses a problem
Problems with Iliad 9
Phoenix’ place in the text is uncertain
May be a recent addition to the tradition
Embassy to Achilles
o Described inconsistently
o Main action of book
Sometimes 3 heroes
Sometimes 2 heroes
Beginning of Book 9
Agamemnon is ready to give up the war and go home
o This shows that he is a week leader
Various people reject
o Diamedes
o Nester old hero, an advisor, not a fighter

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1. Advised Agamemnon to send an embassy to Achilles to try and convince him to come back and
fight for the Achaeans
2. Picks 5 people to be in the embassy, 3 heroes = Odysseus, Phoenix, Ajax (giant) 2 escorts =
o This scene is not well integrated into the poem as a whole
1. This argument is that Phoenix was not an original member of the 3 heroes in the embassy
2. The argument pulls its foundation from some questionably translation from the original Greek
writing.
3. Phoenix is the leader of the embassy named by Nectar
4. Problem with translation is that greek have 3 verbs, singular, plural, and a group of 2
5. Odysseus is later named the leader, and phoenix disappears
6. Phoenix However then reappears and delivers the longest speech
7. Argument overall is then if it was just Ajax and Phoenix who went to speak to Achilles or how
involved Phoenix really was in the process. Was the addition of the Phoenix added by the poet
of the Iliad rather than by Homer?
Purpose of the Embassy and why it fails
8. Purpose was to bring Achilles back into the fighting
9. Agamemnon has a long list of gifts he will offer for Achilles to do this.
o Odysseus’ Speech
1. Great speaker,
2. Repeats Agamemnon’s offer
Horses, slave women, return of briscais (Slave woman that was taken)
Hand of his daughter in marriage
Rich dowry
And a list of cities for Achilles to rule
3. Adds other motivations: honour, glory
Take pity on the other forces that are fighting ( his Achaean brothers)
They will look at Achilles like a God
4. Odysseus alters what Agamemnon says to make it more appealing to Achilles
Achilles replies
He is not going to fight, he is going to leave
Why does he do this? (Achilles Reasoning)
Achilles does not think that Agamemnon’s offer will restore his honour (Geras) – gift that gives honour to the
person that it is given)
o The reason for this is not entirely clear
o It probably has to do with the character of the giver, (who the gift is coming from) is that person
honourable?
o Achilles does not think Agamemnon is honourable
1. Agamemnon a coward
2. Agamemnon’s offer a bribe ( his gifts are only wealth, they don’t bring honour)
3. No matter how much Agamemnon offers will not change his mind
o Achilles therefore wants Agamemnon to pay back his honour but he doesn’t make it clear what
Agamemnon can actually do to repay this ‘honour’.
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