CLA 310 L11.07

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Published on 13 Nov 2012
Provinces in the Roman Republic
- Greece, Carthage, Spain, North Africa, Egypt – Mediterranean area
- Rome had an empire before an emperor
oRoman senate and people rule it
- Greeks would think that the Roman people are their conquerors
- How did Rome relate to its conquered people?
oRelationship with conquered people – how did they assimilate / react to them?
oExploitation, taxation (controlled, collected by local elites)
- Ideally pull legions out of the territory after the conquest – life goes back to ‘normal’ except for
the territory’s promise of military service and/or taxation as a sign of allegiance to Rome
- Established Roman governor – prime authority (ex-magistrate) of the province
oOfficials and soldiers accompany the governor
- Ideally to establish good relations with the local elite to help with governance and taxation
oKeep local civic structure but make sure they are obedient to Rome
- Government and religion go hand-in-hand – governor the representative of Rome, in charge of
making sure sacrifice or offering is made in behalf of Rome, the emperor, etc.
oRelied on to make sure rites followed through by the locals, culture abided by as a sign of
allegiance to Rome and empire
Colonia (pl. coloniae)
- Towns set up and founded for Roman citizens – colony
oTown for soldiers and veterans, their families
- Grant of citizenship to non-status town to make them coloniae
- Set up to secure a conquered territory and in times of land crises, house poor people
- Involved Roman citizens – culturally so
o(Latin-speaking, traditional religious practices, know traditional law, rights)
- Italy not wholly Roman before – held by different tribes that have different languages but pretty
similar in some religious aspects
- Charter given to coloniae – privileges, rules that are similar to Rome’s – pontifices, augures
brought to the coloniae, headed by duumviri (mayors)
oRome’s civic, political and religious values imitated by the coloniae
- Foundation of the coloniae mimic foundation of Rome – auguries, auspices taken before
establishing the coloniae, walls built, furrow made to indicate sacred boundary (but not equitable
to the Roman pomerium – just a formality, no symbolic value)
Municipia (pl. municipiae)
- People are non-citizens, have Latin rights
oWatered-down version of citizenship rights
- The local magistrate, at the end of his term, can become a citizen
- Municipia can be granted the status of colonia later
oAct as Roman as possible to become eligible for citizenship
o“Play the game” to be promoted
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oE.g., Gaul became romanized before Dacia
Towns without status
- People live there, own governance and citizenship but not Romans – ruled by them though
- No say in political matters, don’t have a way to appeal to Roman governor about mistreatment –
voice can't be heard
- Most Roman influence, traditional gods, rites seen in coloniae
- Towns without status usually preserve their own native religion
- Both Roman and non-Roman religious rites in municipiae
- 212, Caracalla issued a decree that all inhabitants of the Roman empire be made into citizens
oBefore 212, when one is expelled from a community, they could become citizens of
o212 and afterwards, expulsion from the community means losing citizenship, leaving the
empire, and facing the death sentence if one came back
Gaius, Institutes 2.5-7
- Property of gods in the provinces
- Treat as if sacer /religiosus even though it isn’t
oMore important to not anger the gods – see no need to uproot native religious beliefs if
they don’t have to be dealt with directly just yet
P.250, 10.4c, di-iv
Property in the provinces:
What kind of authority does Pliny have? What is Pliny’s concern in each letter? Why does
he consult Trajan? What is Trajan’s response? How does it relate to Gaius’ discussion of Roman
property law?
- Does not have technical/legal status as it would have been in Rome – not consecrated, spaces in
provinces deemed sacer / religiosus – leave as such because no need to upset the local people
- Moving of the Mater Magna temple, need not worry about the ritual
- Trajan the pontifex maximus – so he would know what to do regarding religious matters
oCurrying favours from the emperor
oPrevent displeasure of the gods
oCovering his ass- being cautious
- Pontius-Bithynia mismanaged before Pliny – who is a precise person, perfectionist – thus the
perfect person to manage the province
- No set rules for magistrates to bring to provinces
- Not sure if applicable to the people and the emperor’s letter has the force of law (can act as
- No religious offence because soil has no status like Rome’s (Gaius says that they should treat it as
such even if it isn’t – opposite view)
- Trajan doesn’t care – just do it
- Move dead bodies – Trajan says go for it
- Property of these people not really religiosus
oDifferent from Gaius who says treat it as if it were religiosus
- No native festivals but have the major ones
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