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Lecture 2

Course Code
Terry Robinson

of 4
Lec 2
-Base is the core element in Grk/Lat from which a term comes from
-Prefix and suffix are the elements that come before and after the base, respectively
-Compound word a word composed of more than one base
-Interconnecting vowel is a vowel, often o or ‘i, used to connect bases
-ALG = pain
o-algesia = sense of pain; an example of a compd. noun-forming suffix (L5-6) consisting
of an expanded form of the base ALG joined to the noun-forming suffix sia (L8)
-ARTHR = joint, speech sound, articulation
oTwo connected but distinct meanings: the skeleton consists of many distinct bones
separated by joints; similarly, speech contains many distinct sounds which our brains
hear as separate meaningful units
oArthrobranchial = pertaining to jointed gills
- Misprints
-Enanti- seems to function like a base that it usually takes interconnecting vowel (o) before a
base beginning with a consonant
-TROPH- (nourishment, development) base distinguish from TOP- (place), TOM- (cut), TROP-
Ch. 3
-ERG = work
oVariant form = ORG
oGeorgic = pertaining to working the earth, i.e., agriculture or even the name Geroge
= farmer
- Misprints:
Ch. 4
-ANDR = man, male
oDistinguish between ANTHROP (human being, M/F)
oDifference between to philander (of a man: readily or frequently enter into casual
sexual relationships with women) and philanthropy (the desire to promote the welfare
of others, expressed especially by the generous donation of money to good causes)
oPertaining to the pathological death of a cell or a group of cells in contact with living
o-otic is the adjectival suffix formed from the noun suffix osis
-Transliterate : write/print (a letter or a word) using the closest corresponding letters of a
different language or alphabet: names from one language are often transliterated into
-ORIGIN mid-19th c., from trans- (across) + Latin littera ‘letter + -ate (makes it a verb)
-Account for aspirations (th, rh/rrh, etc.)
oOriginate from prepositions and adverbs
oAdverb can modify a verb, adj., another adverb, phrase or clause
oAdverb indicates time, manner, place, cause or degree. Answers how, when, where,
how much
oly is a common English adverbial ending
Other e.g., here, now, yesterday
oPrepositions are a class of words that indicate relationships between nouns, pron.,
and other words in the sentence. Often came before a noun. Never change their form
About, from, towards
-*IMP* When they end with a vowel and the following base also has a vowel, the prefix will
often drop its vowel
oParagraph para/graph beside/writing
oParallelpar/allelbeside/one another
oMeanings of suffixes are both easier and harder to learn than those of prefixes and
bases easier because the commonest ones do not have very distinct fixed meanings,
but harder because you have to try various phraseologies to see which one fits the
situation of this particular word in this particular context
oThey determine the part of speech a word is
Noun, pron., v., adv., adj., prep., interjection, conjn.
oSuffixes can make words into, nouns, verbs, and adjectives, and maybe an adverb too
oNoun-forming suffixes are the most complex group (L5-12). Adj.-forming suffixes (L4-
6) and Verb-forming suffixes are easier (L12). Adverbial suffixes the easiest of all.
Nybakkens Guide to Overall Meaning
1 base
-Prefix + base prefix modifies the base and can come after or before
opre/FIX = attach before
-Base + suffix suffix modifies base and generally comes before
oOR/al = pertaining to the mouth
-Prefix + base + suffix
oec/CENTR/ic = like (one) out of centre
Coordinate compounds
-When 2 bases have equal importance
oE.g., Farmer-labour
oE.g., Frontonasal = FRONT/o/NAS/al = pertaining to both the frons and the nasus
oE.g., Scalpulohumeral = SCALP/ul/o/HUMER/al = pertaining to the scapula and the
Subordinate form 1
-When the 1st part is an adj. that modifies the 2nd
oE.g., hardheaded hard base modifies the head base
oE.g., Microspore = MICR/o/SPOR/e = small seed
oE.g., Equivalence = EQU/i/VAL/ent = being worth an equal amount
Subordinate form 2
-When the 1st element is the dir. obj. of the 2nd, which is usually verbal
oE.g., Shoemaker = one who makes shoes
oE.g., Anthophora = ANTH/o/PHOR/a = bearing flowers
Subordinate form 3
-When the 1st element designates the place/thing in respect to which (Where? What? When?)
the meaning of the 2nd applies
oE.g., Underworld = world that is below
oE.g., Omodynia = OM/ODYN/ia = pain the shoulder
Subordinate form 4
-When the 1st element stands in an instrumental or means (how?) relationship to the 2nd
oE.g., sun-tanning = tanning by means of the sun
oE.g., Heliotherapy = HELI/o/THERAP/y = treatment by means of the sun
Subordinate form 5
-When the 1st element qualifies the 2nd in regard to manner or outstanding characteristic
oE.g., Snowflake
oE.g., Plantigrade = PLANT/i/GRAD/e = walking on the entire sole of the foot
-In general, either both bases will be equally important OR the first will modify the second in
some way
Practice Test
Part 1: Short Answer (2 pts. per answer)
1.Give the definition of the term:
a.BASE: the core element in Grk/Lat from which the term comes
Part 2: Multiple Choice (1 pt. per ques.)
1.Which of the following is NOT a meaning for the suffix –al:
b.Belonging to