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Lecture 3

Course Code
Terry Robinson

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Lec 3
-Bases are usually derived from Greek and Latin nouns, verbs or adjectives
-Prefixes are usually derived from Greek and Latin prepositions and adverbs
-Suffixes are usually derived from word endings in Greek, Latin or English to
indicate a part of speech (noun, verb, or adjective)
-Compound bases:
oIn every compound word constructed from two or more nominal (i.e., noun),
adjectival, adverbial or verbal elements, each of its components stands in
some syntactical relationship to the other components.
When two or more words of equal rank are linked together, the
resultant compound is called a coordinate compound
Rarely made from English words (an example of one is farmer-
In many more English compound words, the several components are
not of equal rank but stand in varying syntactical relationships to
each other these are called subordinate forms
E.g., toothpick, leg-plying, hard-headed it is evident in these
words that the first element of each word qualifies the second
Descriptive adjective
E.g., fleet-footed
Direct object
Where? What?
Downtown building
Manner or outstanding characteristic
Chapter 5
-Compound suffixes that start with a consonant will be preceded by an
interconnecting vowel because compound suffixes are really just bases and suffixes
that have become so fixed as a single unit with a single meaning that they are easier
to learn that way
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1.-(h)emia = (H)EM/ia = blood /condition of = condition of the blood
2.-logy = LOG/y = word, speech, reason / process of = process of reasoning; hence
science of, systematic study of
3.-lysis = LY/sis = to loosen / process, state of = process of loosening; hence (surgical )
separation of
4.-mania = MAN/ia = madness (not in Ayers) / state, condition of = state of madness
5.-pathy = PATH/y = disease, suffering / process, state of = state of disease (or
occasionally, process of treating disease)
6.–phobia = PHOB/ia = fear (not in Ayers) / state, condition of = state of (abnormal)
fear of
7.therapy = THERAP/ y = to treat (not in Ayers) / process of = process of treatment
8.tomy = TOM/y = to cut / process of = process of cutting; hence surgical operation on
9.–ectomy = ec/TOM/y = out / to cut / process of = process of cutting out; hence surgical
removal of
10.–uria = UR/ia = urine / state, condition of = condition of the urine
-PHREN = mind, diaphragm
oTwo distinct meanings, connected by the idea (common in early Greek
literature, such as the Homeric poems) that the area of the diaphragm (i.e.,
immediately below the ribs) is the seat of some kinds of thinking; compare
the popular modern expression a gut feeling
Chapter 6
- -iasis = IA/sis = needing to be healed or cured (cf., IATR) / state, condition of = state
of needing to be healed or cured; hence disease condition of
oITCH / diseased condition of
- -metry = MET(E)R/y = to measure / process of = process of measurement
oTo be distinguished from METR = uterus, womb; the first e is short (epsilon)
in the base meaning to measure and long (eta) in the base meaning uterus
oE.g., Metric vs. Metritis
- -plasty = PLAST/y = to form, mo(u)ld / process of = process of formation; hence
plastic surgical operation
- -rhea = RRHE/(i)a = to flow / process, condition of = process or condition of
(abnormal) flow; hence abnormal flow or discharge of
- -stomy = STOM/y = mouth, opening / process, condition of = process of (making) an
opening; surgical operation to make an opening in
- MP: (MWTWW) anemia
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