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Lecture 3

Lecture 3.doc


Department
Classics
Course Code
CLA204H1
Professor
Regina Hoeschele
Lecture
3

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05/02/2012 01:19:00
- All change or processes involve something coming to be from out of its
opposite.
Principles of nature
- Something comes to be what it is by acquiring its distinctive form
eg. A baby becoming an adult, a seed becoming a mature plant. Since the
baby or the seed were working towards this form all along, the form itself (the
idea or pattern of the mature specimen) must have existed before the baby or
seed actually matured. – The form must be one of the principles of nature.

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PHL 200 Lecture 3 05/02/2012 01:19:00
The questions u can ask scientifically about the changes u observe in
nature
And the things capable of such changes; the capacity.
Formal Causality- the kind of cause that answers the question, to what
the phenomenon is.
Matter can refer to the thing that undergoes the change , or the
capacity that thing has to undergo change.
The Final Cause – why is the final cause a cause?
What is this thing for?
How a question in regards to nature?
oIt is unproblematic when talking about artifacts or human
artifacts.
Feelings, reason
One possibility:
oGod created the world, and god created it for a purpose
It’s the idea of purposeness that is relevant
Someone can say anything has a purpose; that which may be
evident to us.
Nature studies changeable thing insofar as they are changeable.
Being orange when no one can see the orange.. what is the purpose?
What is it for?
What is an appendix for is a really good question.
oNo one assumed it to be a bad question, we just had no
answer.
Matter is always a function of form and so they are always closesly
related, matter could never exist alone, it is not actual

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oFunctionally related to form.
The four causes are inseperable, there is always a final cause.
A final cause is a result of a result of an efficient cause.
What is the result intended for?
oSomething in nature of the fish can be the efficient cause, b/c
something in the nature is important for the functioning of
o
efficient cause is reducible to the formal cause b/c they are both the
same (not identical)
o
to be is to live
oto be a rabbit is not to be a static form; To be a rabbit is to live
a rabbits life.
oTo be a virus is to live the life of a virus.
oTherefore if you live like a human being, you are a human
being.
oThe focus of science; especially of biological science, is the
final cause ??
We can ask about the possible material cause.
4 causes exhaust the possibility of scientific explanations
two more issues:
luck and chance.
oWhat is the difference between luck and chance??
Luck is a species of chance.
Luck can be an explanation; but not an additional
scientific answer.
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