Women In Antiquity Lecture One.docx

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4 Feb 2013
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Women In Antiquity (Lecture One) September 11TH 2012
What is the definition of Antiquity?
Referring to Western Culture (Area in Mediterranean)
Different Sources
Archaeological/ Material (Houses and Tombs)
Epigraphy (Inscriptions to indicate VIRTUES HELD DURING LIFE)
Artifacts (Vases, Statues, Female Beauty)
Literature (Philosophical, Historical, Scientific, Mythological, Poetic, etc)
Mediated through texts and artefacts
Male view (Misogynistic view of women) by male authors
Goddesses in Ancient Myth Role Model for Women
Ancient Greece
ARCHAIC PERIOD: ca. 750- 500 BC (Iliad & Odyssey Composed Model for
later literature)
CLASSICAL PERIOD: ca. 500-323 BC (Death of Alexander the Great)
HELLENISTIC PERIOD: ca. 323-31 BC (Battle of Actium)
IMPERIAL PERIOD: Rome as a new political power (Greece becomes a
province in 146 BC)
Rome
Founded in 753 BC Romulus and Remus
ROMAN REPUBLIC: ca. 30 BC- 3RD c. AD
ROMAN EMPIRE: ca. 3RD c. AD- 4TH c. AD
LATE ANTIQUITY: ca. 4TH c. AD- 6TH c. AD
Epithet “CLASSICAL” (Passes on for generations)
Political forms change after the death of Alexander (3 Divisions)
Formation of city-states “polis”
Caesar (44 BC) Assasinated
Romans looked up to Greece
East (Asia Minor Greek Colonies)
“Polis” sending out people to colonize other states
The Parthenon on the Acropolis
Rule of Alexander the Great (356- 323 BC)
Red (Persians travelling) + Yellow (Conquered by Alexander the Great)
Ancient Rome Romulus + Remus (Military Power)
Status of women not the same
Patriarch Societies Women in charge of “OIKOS” HOUSEHOLD
Misogyny (Hating of Women) Had to be tamed, Kept in household
Democracy (People in Charge of Society) Not by a tyrant
Caesar claims to be descended from the son of Aeneas (Julio)
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The Twelve Olympians
Uranus
(Caelus)
Cronus
(Saturnus)
Zeus Hera Demeter Hestia Poseidon
(Jupiter) (Juno) (Ceres) (Vesta) (Neptunus)
Aphrodite Athena Ares Apollo Artemis Hephaestus Hermes
(Venus) (Minerva) (Mars) (Apollo) (Diana) (Vulcanus) (Mercurius)
Aphrodite
Roman Name: Venus
Epithets: Kypris, Kythereia
Born from the member of Uranus
(Hesiod) Daughter of Zeus + Dione (Homer)
Goddess of love
Wife of Hephaestus
Mother of Eros (Cupid)
Mistress of Ares
Mortal lovers: Anchises (Son: Aeneas Founding father of Rome) + Adonis
Hesiod (Theogony- Succession of Gods) The Birth of Aphrodite
Cytherea (Aphros Foam)
Philommedes (the one who smiles)
Aphrodite rising out of the Sea (APHRODITE ANADYOMENE)
Aphrodite (Mother of Eros Cupid)
Famous scene in the Odyssey (Aphrodite + Ares)
Beauty personified
The Judgement of Paris
Paris must give a golden apple to the fairest goddess (Athena, Hera + Aphrodite)
Aphrodite (Promises a beautiful wife)
Athena (Promises success in War)
Hera (Promises rule over the world)
Chooses Aphrodite (Paris promised Helen)
Dispute over Helen = Cause of the Trojan War
Artemis
Roman Name: Diana
Daughter of Zeus and Leto
Twin sister of Apollo
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