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Regina Höschele

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CLA219- Lecture 4 - Women in art and poetry
For the midterm:
know the epigrams
the dates roughly for the poems and artworks
definitions of goddesses and characters
familiarize with passages from texts
1. Peplos- Kore statue - 520 BC (Archaic era)
Kore=maiden in greek, another name for persephone who was also known as Kore
Peplos=a flowing garment
like most art from the archaic times, the statue was very generic and rigid in form, less
movement and emotion, less detail, but major detailing in hair pattern, more basic, has
the passive archaic smile
her hand could have held a spear
contrapposto with one feet ahead
shows grace (Charis in greek) yet liveliness
shows ideal aristocratic women of the time
some say it is to honor Athena
The female Kore is clothed, the male kouros is not.
It was initially painted with color but the color faded overtime. She was painted with
geometric animal motifs on the peplos, the style at the time
therefore our sense of what antiquity is like was conditioned by paintings, movies, etc.
Some polychromic statues have specific colors that fade overtime, so if you put UV light
over them, you can rediscover faints of the color to see the patterns of that time.
2. Archaic Kouros (kouroi is plural)
archaic smile, contrapposta, nude but genetials are small (they believed big was not beautiful),
no leaves to cover the penis (that was a later concept) rigid, generic body structure, ideal,
patterned hair, also archaic
3. Lion from Loutraki (near Corinth)
also archaic, general basic form
550 BC
blue main and yellow fur however
4. Paris on the west pediment of the Aphaia temple
the Goddess Aphaia was worshiped on the island of Aigina
he was wearing colorful patterned pants
holding a bow and arrow
he seems foreign, thus potentially bad for the Greeks (he was part of the Trojan side)
5. Athena of Parthenon

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She was holding a shield, a snake by her side, you can see her shape and silhouette rear
through the peplos, a marble statue, also brightly colored
6. Augustus of Primaporta - 1863
A statue that was in his wife's home
First emperor of Rome
he is shown as authoritative and divine because he has cupid (eros) by this feet. He
hails from the Julii family which are descendants of Venus herself
His chest piece shows the Roman battle against the Parthians in 53 BC
the colors of the original statue are blue and red
7. Funerary statue of Phrasikleia
540 BC, archaic but its been preserved very well
the statue of a girl who died young, contains an inscription to honor the dead girl, the
inscription is an very early example of the epigram
Epigram on Phrasikleia tomb
the epigram is distich (2 lines of a poem)
the epigram is elegiac (typically meter of eulogy=scene for laments)
sema= to symbolize something, such as the tomb
Phrasikleia sema: said in the voice of the tomb (which is a
common thing to go on epigrams)
It said: I shall always be called girl. This is what the Gods gave me in replace of giving
me the chance of being a wife. It means she died as a maiden who was unmarried, and
will always be a maiden (Kore)
It was believed that dead virgins would wed Hades in the underworld, therefore they are
to be honored and respected
Usually kores are found at cult places, but here it is found in a tomb
It is holding a lotus flower: identified with fire, hence hearth and home
The girl never had a chance to be a housewife so she at least holds the lotus
Note, lotuses open and close at night, blooming.
She was prevented from blooming into maturity of womanhood, because of her death
In the Trojan War:
When Achilles withdrew from the battle, he sang the Kleos song ( a song about
fame) . Kleos = being remembered for your deeds through poems. The Greek
concept of everlasting fame. A kleia is one who pays attention to kleos.
The girl dies as a maiden and she gets kleos from the sema and through the epigram “I
will always be a maiden”
In antiquity, tests, epigrams were read out loud, and whoever read the epigram out loud
would help to enhance her kleos
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