CLA230 Lecture 3 Text Notes

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3 Feb 2013
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CLA230 Lecture 3 Text Notes
Key Terms (Ch. 3)
- oikos: “house/family” – social foundation – includes slaves, close relations,
the house and its contents – basic concept consists of monogamous union of
man and woman to produce and rear legitimate children
- Sappho:
female poet who lived around 600 B.C. – very few female poets
studied for information on the female viewpoint on gender – celebrates
love and marriage as a woman’s primary concern
addressed some poems to other women, suggesting homoerotic love –
term lesbian comes from this; Sappho lived on the island of Lesbos
- misogyny: “hatred for women” – important theme in Greek culture – women
represented as an evil influence – i.e. Pandora
- Xenophon:
Athenian aristocrat and professional soldier
wrote about women around 400 B.C., describing a fictional
conversation between Socrates and Ischomachus
does not represent women as a punishment to men, in the way that
Hesiod did
believes that the gods made men superior to women – tough, more
disciplined, more suited to outdoors – therefore the husband is in
control – however marriage is about partnership (he and wife must
work together)
husband should educate his wife to contribute to the household in an
equal way to his contributions
- Aspasia: courtesan of Pericles – courtesan is ‘hetairai’ in Greek – bore
Pericles a child; he kissed her in full view of his fellow citizens and she
conversed with intellectuals
- Pederasty:
“boy-love” – part of the social environment of Greek society
homosexual behaviour between the mature sexually active ale
(erastes – “lover”) and the prepubescent passive partner (eromenos –
“beloved”)
part of the environment of the Greek symposium, where prepubescent
males served wine and learned about adult male behaviour
shameful to remain an eromenos after sexual maturity – however it
sometimes still happened
- amphidromia:
“running around” – ritual for newborn children to bring them into the
community in a formal way
holding baby in his arms, father walks around the heath, presenting
the baby to Hestia
establishes the child’s legitimacy and future status as a citizen
friends and neighbours bring gifts of octopus and cuttlefish
parents hung olive branch outside the door if the child was a boy, and
a tuft of wool if it was a girl
smear walls with black tar to turn away hostile spirits attracted to the
bodily fluids of childbirth
- Hestia: goddess of the hearth – name literally means “hearth”
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Sexuality
-wife’s success in life was judged mainly by her ability to produce heirs – male
children
-males in literature often refer to sexual activity in marriage as “work” – to
produce heirs
-sex outside of marriage acceptable for males, but not females – however
adultery with a free woman was dangerous – her father/husband/brother/son
could kill the adulterer – usually the adulteress was spared
-poleis imposed heavy fines on adultery to prevent blood feuds
-in Athens – fine for adultery twice that for rape
-prostitutes – divided into two categories: ‘courtesans’ (hetairi) and ‘whores’
(pornai)
-pederasty was common – Greek males having sexual relations with boys –
adult erastes introduce younger eromenos to the ways of polite society –
sexual and intellectual aspects
-much known about male sex life – about women, not as much
Adults and Children
-children were the center of Greek life
-birth and first few days of life were most hazardous for child and mother
-fathers had the right to decide whether to keep the newborn baby or expose
(left to die)
-appears that girls exposed more than boys
-unwanted children often were left in well-known slave trading areas – babies
would either die of exposure or were sold into slavery
-wanted babies, that survived the first few days, underwent rituals – most
important ritual was amphidromia – child is named at the fifth day festival, or
if family was wealthy, at a second festival, the dekate – tenth day party
-strong bonds formed between child and wet nurse
-children reared together until five to seven years of age – after this age were
segregated
-girls learned weaving and housekeeping skills necessary for when they would
marry
-boys spent time in the field with their fathers – in wealthy families boys
received proper schooling – learned alphabet, memorized poetry (especially
Homer) and performed it with a lyre – schooling ended around fourteen years
of age
-fathers and older kin – controlled wild teenagers
-at eighteen boys became adults and were accepted as full citizen warriors
Key Terms (Ch. 4)
- fertile crescent: a band of well-watered land stretching from the Persian
Gulf in the east, northwest along the Tigris-Euphrates rivers, then down the
Mediterranean coast
- Neolithic Revolution: the charges that occurred (domestication of crops
and animals and shift toward sedentary village life) as settled populations
grew and hunter-gatherers had to settle down and join the farmers, move
away from them, or continue to live alongside them and perish of disease or
starvation
- Indo-European: a single family of languages that are all similar and likely
evolved from a single proto-Indo-European language – some languages in this
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