CLA230H1 Lecture Notes - Egyptian Calendar, Dorian Invasion, Abu Simbel Temples

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Published on 18 Apr 2013
School
UTSG
Department
Classics
Course
CLA230H1
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of 6
CLA230H1S Lecture 01 1/7/2013 8:01:00 AM
- Herodotus and Thucydides are the two main Historians
- prehistoric periods are periods where we don’t have historic documentation
- we may have archeological information about prehistoric periods but no
documentation
- 776 BC marks the beginning of the Archaic period and was the first
Olympic games*
- chronological divisions tend to be divided into threes
- Stone, Bronze, and Iron ages are divided by technological advances
- Stone and Bronze ages are prehistoric
- These major ages are divided further into threes again
- Early Iron ages are considered Dark Ages, not well understood historically
or archeologically**
- Doric invasion and Ionian migration are legends about the Dark Ages, but
was documented in later ages*
- Classical period on Greek History is the zenith of Greek History, kind of like
the most importantly period in their History
- Hellenistic period is thought as the decline of the Classical period more
than a period itself
- Arthur Evans applied the division of Bronze age
- Neoloithic period is where we begin to see agriculture and domestication of
animals
- Stone age is the first known appearance of Humans
**know approx. dates of bronze and iron ages***
- Greek world spans all of Mediterranean, and in the rule of Alexander, the
reach of India
- Marsallia, now Marseille, was a Greek colony**
- Alexandria, Egypt, was a Greek settlement even in more recent years
- Grecia Magnia is Southern Italy (Sicily)
Herodotus
- the father of History inventor of genre of historic writing in Western
world Persian wars, but wasn’t active historian during the wars, as he was
in early childhood
- ISTORIA (historie) is an inquiry (research) in Greek language
- Herodotus is from the city of Halicarnassus
- Hellene is someone with a Greek identity
- Greece was not a unified state, they were related by language and
common customs and culture, and even sharing the same blood
- Barbarians are defined as a NON-GREEKS
- the purpose of Herodotus’ work was that “things done by man not to be
forgotten in time” – fight the natural decay of human memory
- he focuses on human activity, great deeds, and particularly on aristocratic
and military male activities during the Persian Wars
- Not only on Greek activity, also on Barbarian activity also talks about
Persian customs
- Herodotus said that Egyptian calendar was better than Greek, and made
connection that Egyptians are credited for inventing the gods
- he focuses on causality (how and why?) discusses what would happen if
something happen differently???**
- primarily Oral History, asks people and records their answers
- Halicarnassus is now in Modern Turkey, but Herodotus spent quite some
time in Athens based in his familiarity
- Herodotus is highly criticized, due to his nature of being an oral historian;
he even criticizes some accounts
- he uses common sense when comparing different accounts
Thucydides
- another great Historian
- he focuses on the war and its greatness, and writes about the
Peloponnesian War
- Thucydides was actually an Athenian leader in the war, he was actually in
his own historical account
- Thucydides acts more like an academic historian, whereas Herodotus acts
more like a storyteller
- Name of HELLAS and HELLENE did not exits yet
- Thucydides also refers to mythology, but makes note of it (“by tradition”)
- Thucydides also uses archeology
- he tried to use archeology to understand the people that lived in the
Cyclades
- not always the case that the nicer city is necessarily the wealthiest even
though archeology would suggest that Athens was more wealthy than Sparta
based on archeological remains, they were equal in power and strength, and
wealth
- there are other historian, but Herodotus and Thucydides are the ones that
have remained for us to see
- Thucydides does not try to entertain or satisfy the audience, he tries to
make an educated account he also makes reference to the knowledge of
past human behavior, history
- reasons for documenting human behavior outside the Greek world,
because they acknowledge that they are human too, meaning that their
human behavior is reflective and noteworthy
- Thucydides makes distinction of immediate and real (underlying) causes**
- many events require more analysis, which is the job of the historians
Xenophon
- basically picks up where Thucydides breaks off
- wrote Hellenica, Anabasis
- he also wrote political-didactic works
- he was also a follower of Socrates, and even wrote an apology to
Socrates**
- ancient historians did not only write about history, they wrote about many
diff things
- Aristotle was a student of Plato, and wrote many political accounts
- Polybius was a Greek who wrote roman history
- Plutarch was Greek and wrote biographies wrote biographies of Greeks
and Romans and compared them
- there existed other literary sources; from the arts drama, poetry, arts,
philosophy, etc. even speeches, especially in Athens
- inscriptions also contained Greek texts they tend to be public
documents/proclamations
- even in Egypt, in Abu Simbel, there were Greek inscriptions on the feet
they were written by Greek mercenaries fighting for the Egyptians
- Papyri was also used, especially in Egypt, and conserved in Egypt due to
the dry climate official texts, birth and death certificates, marriage
certificates, police documents*
- Papyri are good for daily life accounts

Document Summary

Herodotus and thucydides are the two main historians. Prehistoric periods are periods where we don"t have historic documentation. We may have archeological information about prehistoric periods but no documentation. 776 bc marks the beginning of the archaic period and was the first. Chronological divisions tend to be divided into threes. Stone, bronze, and iron ages are divided by technological advances. These major ages are divided further into threes again. Early iron ages are considered dark ages, not well understood historically or archeologically** Doric invasion and ionian migration are legends about the dark ages, but was documented in later ages* Classical period on greek history is the zenith of greek history, kind of like the most importantly period in their history. Hellenistic period is thought as the decline of the classical period more than a period itself. Arthur evans applied the division of bronze age. Neoloithic period is where we begin to see agriculture and domestication of animals.