Paradoxal- defines greeks as a whole yet various parts of greece in division were revealed. Darius + xerxes each polis has to make a decision on them. Reasonable at the time but would have negative consequences for you after. Sparta obvious but deliberate form of attack. Sparta would drag its enemy to the peloponnese break them down in the narrow passage barricading them. Athens has to fight them by position. His view athens was the one to save all of greece (or they would have perished) Athenians knew this and used it to their advantage to exploit it when growing their empire in 5th century. People who rode the navy got the most prestige as a result = this brought glory to. The demos would demand more political sway as a result. History of persian war- 490-480 bce ( 490- darius) By herodotus story line told us a greek tragedy. Gave meaning to the battle facts i. e. moral narrative.