Herodotus Sections 7.1 - 139

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13 Feb 2011
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CLA232 Greeks and BarbariansMonday February 7th 2011
Herodotus Histories 7.1 - 139
๎€90 minutes
๎€Part 1: Short Answer, 10 questions, 20 points totals, โ€˜terms, dates, namesโ€™
๎€Part 2: Longer short answer: paragraphs, like the questions on the site
๎€Part 3: Essay Question, 1 of 3 questions
Persian Wars
๎€First time since the Trojan War that Greece had to work together as a united force
๎€Defining moment for Greece as a force in the Mediterranean
๎€Time of self-definition for the different poleis within Greece
๎€Paradox: although it united Greece together, it also highlighted the differences between
the poleis
๎€Helping the Persians were held against those poleis for decades afterwards
๎€For Herodotus, the Persian Wars most importantly showed the differences between
Sparta and Athens
๎€Sparta, much further South than Athens, pursued a policy of blocking off the passage
towards them to prevent the Persians to get to them
๎€Athens didnโ€™t have this choice, they had to battle
๎€Herodotus believes that if the Athenians, through fear of the approaching danger had
abandoned their country or surrendered to Xerxes, the Persian invasion of Greece
would have succeeded, and so he believes that Athens saved the Greeks
๎€Athens, because of their geographical location, fought the Persians and according to
Herodotusโ€™ opinion, saved all of Greece from the Persians
๎€Athens would use this is a way to justify their power after the Persian War
๎€So, the wars defined Greece as a whole and also the poleis themselves, as well as
individual factions within the poleis, especially within Athens
๎€The most defining moment for Athens was the Battle of Salamis, and also for the
Athenian navy (powered by the lowest classes) who then agitated for more political
rights
๎€So the Persian Wars also fed Athenian democracy
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CLA232 Greeks and BarbariansMonday February 7th 2011
Herodotus Histories 7.1 - 139
๎€So, the Persian Wars affected the national, the poleis, and the inter-poleis levels
๎€Herodotus gives us the history of these wars since the very beginning all the way to the
end and the defeat of Persia
๎€He gives a lot of historical details, but no history as we know is every neutral
๎€This is especially true of war, where the stakes are very high
๎€So, Herodotus has to sort through the details and shape the story
๎€The shape he gives the Persian Wars is a tragedy
๎€We see this already with the story of Croesus
๎€Hubris: arrogance and violence
๎€So he shapes the story of the Persian wars as hubris and its punishment
๎€The story begins in 499 BCE with the Ionian Revolt
๎€The Ionians were Greeks who lived in Asia Minor, sent out as colonies during the
Archaic period
๎€Greek-speaking, but governed by Persia
๎€Being Greeks, they resented being ruled by Persians and want their freedom
๎€They send to Greece for help
๎€The Spartans decline the invitation to help, but the Athenians feel a strong kinship
with them and send a navy to help the Ionians with their revolution against the
Persians
๎€They help the Ionians free themselves and then they march on to Sardis and burn
Sardis (capital of Lydia, important to Persian geopolitics)
๎€The Ionian revolt is ultimately put down, the Ionians donโ€™t have the power to resist for
long, but Darius never gets over his grudge against Athens
๎€In 490 BCE he sets out to conquer Greece
๎€He sails against the Aegean and lands in Marathon
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CLA232 Greeks and BarbariansMonday February 7th 2011
Herodotus Histories 7.1 - 139
๎€Marathon is only 24 miles from Athens
๎€Athenians freak out
๎€They send to Sparta for help and the story goes that they send a runner who ran the
entire distance from Athens to Sparta in the same day
๎€The runner tells the Spartans that the Persians have landed in Attica, and the Spartan
response was; weโ€™d love to, but unfortunately weโ€™re in the middle of a religious festival,
so youโ€™re going to have to wait until the festival is over
๎€So the Athenians are faced with a choice: they can either wait to be invaded or go out
and face the Persians alone
๎€General Miltiades decides that they have to fight for their freedom
๎€They fight the Persians at Marathon
๎€First time many of these Athenians ever saw an Asian, the โ€˜otherโ€™
๎€Vastly outnumbered
๎€Terrified though they are, the Athenians run at the Persians and fight them hand-to-
hand and drive the Persians back to the sea
๎€Herodotus tells us that only 192 Athenians died vs. 6000ish Persians
๎€After the battle, the Spartans show up and praise the Athenians and go home
๎€So Marathon is extremely important to Athensโ€™ self-image
๎€The people who fought at Marathon, the Marathonomakhoi, were seen as Athensโ€™
greatest generations
๎€They were given the unique honour of being buried on the battlefield
๎€To the Greeks, it was a battle of slavery over freedom, Greece vs. Persia, defending their
way of life
๎€So Marathon elevated the Athenian position in Greece
๎€After the war, it was clear that the Athenians were going to need to develop some sort of
defense against a future Persian invasion
๎€They send to Delphi and ask how to prepare themselves
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Document Summary

part 1: short answer, 10 questions, 20 points totals, terms, dates, names". part 2: longer short answer: paragraphs, like the questions on the site. part 3: essay question, 1 of 3 questions. First time since the trojan war that greece had to work together as a united force. defining moment for greece as a force in the mediterranean. Time of self-definition for the different poleis within greece. paradox: although it united greece together, it also highlighted the differences between the poleis. helping the persians were held against those poleis for decades afterwards. For herodotus, the persian wars most importantly showed the differences between. sparta, much further south than athens, pursued a policy of blocking off the passage towards them to prevent the persians to get to them. athens didn"t have this choice, they had to battle.

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