Roman Expansion, Society and Assembly
oThree Major Wars
o264-241; 218-201; 149-146BC
o2nd Punic war sees the invasion and destruction of Italy itself
o3rd Punic War sees the destruction of Carthage
•Macedonian Wars (215-148BC)
•Series of interventions
•"liberated" Greece is a protectorate
•Ptolemaic rulers propped up by Rome
•Land in Asia minor
•"bequeathed" to Rome (133)
•Northern and Western Fronts:
oSpanish provinces in 197BC
oAnnexation of southern Gaul in 121BC
oGallic Wars 58-51BC (Caesar is general)
•Archaic Society from a Sociological Standpoint
oStruggling hierarchal aristocratic community
oOrganized by tribes with Etruscan names
oPopulus of Rome conceived of a fighting organization-it meant the army (warrior
oClosed aristocracy at first - virtual monopoly on political and religious rights
oRoman constitution changes over time
oExtended (mom, dad, kids, slaves)
oIn aristocracy, your clients and patrons are your extended families
oDuty of attendance for the clients
oThe patron defends the client in court
oWhole cities could fall under the protection of a patron
•Who was a Roman Citizen?
oOriginally: Farmers, shepherds, and craftsmen on the
banks of the Tiber
oPeople who immigrated to the city.
oMembers of colonies established in Italy and abroad
oMembers of foreign communities to whom citizenship
oSoldiers who had served for 25 years.
oAfter 212 AD: basically everyone in the empire.
•What does “Rome” mean?
oEarly: a central Italian city with a special from of government: a senatorial oligarchy
o Later: the seat of a military monarchy and a vast and expanding empire.