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Livy Book 2

8 Pages

Course Code
Erik Gunderson

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• “Geometrical representation
-uneven stakeholders
-military, political, fiscal coordination
-“moderate democracy”
• More responsibilities means more rights
• This basic principle is never radically challenged
Practical Details:
• Census represents the armed citizenry
• Census encompassescommunity standing” broadly conceived
• Census grades originally used to levy the citizenry according to ability to contribute
• Census rankings remain the basis for voting units even after changes in army
• Census supposed to be once every 5 years
• Census is mandatory; failure punished by enslavement
• Census carried out by censors and a small staff in Rome
• Carried out elsewhere by local magistrates who report back to Rome
• Census registration via oaths of the citizenry
Roman Magistracies
-General Principles
-extension if needed via prorogatio
-gap between holding same office again
-veto by colleagues
-veto from above
-Exceptions to the General Principles
-censors every 5 years
-dictatoras needed” (emergency office)
-dictator has no colleague
-dictator cannot face a veto
-Hierarchy of offices
-Offices with imperium (i.e. military authority):
-(Brings senate membership)
-Offices without imperium
-Originally does not bring membership in senate
-Aediles become senators in 123
-Quaestors in 80 (Sulla'sreforms)
-Tribunes of the People
-a separate and parallel order
-cannot be a patrician
-can veto any other magistrate (including colleagues) except the dictator
-can veto legislation
-oversees the plebeian council
-can propose legislation to it
-Duties of consuls
-Preside over senate
-Chief civil officers
-Chief military officers
-Diplomatic officers
-Convene the centuriate assembly
-Duties of praetors
-army commanders
-Duties of aediles
-markets and public buildings
-Duties of quaestors
-financial officers
-governors' staff
-military finances
-theoretically, the aristocracy was open, but practically speaking it was closed
-Senate consisted mostly of the same families (generation after generation)
-best way to get into Senate if not part of senatorial family was through a position
with imperium (elected by Centuriate Assembly)
-“self-policing” Roman upper class
-no one allowed to get too prominent; if this did happen person would be accused
of aspiring to tyranny or monarchy
-any outsider admitted to the closed aristocracy would have perpetuated the ‘old boys
-*differential participation*
-citizens could not propose legislature, just say yes or no

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