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Lecture

Livy Book 2

6 Pages
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Department
Classics
Course Code
CLA233H1
Professor
Erik Gunderson

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CLA 233: Week 3: Lecture 1
BACKGROUND INFORMATION
The Augustan Revolution
When Caesar is assassinated, Octavian is the heir apparent. He works immediately on becoming
an even better caesar.
-Overview of the life:
• Born Octavian in 63 BCE
• Named Julius Caesar’s heir in 44 BCE
• Defeats Antonius at Actium in 31 BCE: he now has no rivals for power
• Receives the title Augustus in 27 BCE and imperium for 10 years
• Receives his core powers in 23 BCE
• Dies in 14 CE
-The rise:
• Aggressively pursues power granted to him by Caesar’s will
• Mobilizes Caesar’s clients
• Takes up arms against Caesar’s assassins
• Takes up arms against Antonius his former ally
• Secures broad military and political influence
• “Legitimizes his position
-The strategies:
• Aggregate existing powers rather than claim new ones
• Multiple simultaneous powers
• Offices held in succession
• Monopolize key military commands
• Benefaction
• Euphemism: never admit that there is substantial change afoot
• “Don’t die”
-The key powers:
• imperium proconsulare: power over the army
• imperium consulare: power over the city of Rome
• tribunicia potestas: the right to veto anything
multiple consulships
He mobilizes all Caesars clients in order to kill the assassins of Caesar, and then against
Antonius at Actium.
He first secures broad military and political influence, but legitimizes it unlike Caesar.
www.notesolution.com
Instead of creating new powers, he aggregated existing powers. Caesar said he would bedictator
for life, which is a scary, new power. Augustus simply combined the materials at hand; instead
of eliminating checks and balances, he merely holds many of the offices, thereby becoming the
check/balance on himself.
He monopolizes all the key military commands
Benefaction: become the friends of important people. He creates new senators, he gives money to
the people, etc. Everyone who could threaten him likes him.
Euphemism:I’m participating in the old system; everything is as it was. The Republic Restored
was part of the key augustan rhetoric.
So he has all the consular powers, the ability to get in the way of anyone elses powers, and he
controls the army directly.
-The self-presentation:
enemies area faction” and/or “foreigners; avoids the diction of civil war
• pietas:Filial piety”
• auctoritas:Prestige and “Influence”
• princeps:First citizen”
• imperator:General
• Augustus:Venerable”
refusal of “excessive honors
Conservative
-Enemies are always referred to as one faction, primarily foreigners (think Aeneid)
-Pietas: he claims that he only did what he did out of filial duty to caesar
He always refused “excessive” honours. He always refuses dictatorships and such; he never wants
the powers of a king or a tyrant, just those of a leading citizen (which are, for all intents and
purposes, absolute).
Extremely conservative, paints himself as a restorer of the state.
Imperial Age Transformations
-Continuity:
• Gradation still fundamental: there is a differentiated place for everyone
• Census ranks are the same, but the citizen-soldier who leaves the farm to defend Rome
is a thing of the past
• The different categories of citizenship abide, but more people have full rights over time
-Shifts in emphasis:
• Free citizens getting squeezed out of politics
• Masses of slaves and freedmen are economic competition
www.notesolution.com

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Description
CLA 233: Week 3: Lecture 1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION The Augustan Revolution When Caesar is assassinated, Octavian is the heir apparent. He works immediately on becoming an even better caesar. -Overview of the life: Born Octavian in 63 BCE Named Julius Caesars heir in 44 BCE Defeats Antonius at Actium in 31 BCE: he now has no rivals for power Receives the title Augustus in 27 BCE and imperium for 10 years Receives his core powers in 23 BCE Dies in 14 CE -The rise: Aggressively pursues power granted to him by Caesars will Mobilizes Caesars clients Takes up arms against Caesars assassins Takes up arms against Antonius his former ally Secures broad military and political influence Legitimizes his position -The strategies: Aggregate existing powers rather than claim new ones Multiple simultaneous powers Offices held in succession Monopolize key military commands Benefaction Euphemism: never admit that there is substantial change afoot Dont die -The key powers: imperium proconsulare: power over the army imperium consulare: power over the city of Rome tribunicia potestas: the right to veto anything multiple consulships He mobilizes all Caesars clients in order to kill the assassins of Caesar, and then against Antonius at Actium. He first secures broad military and political influence, but legitimizes it unlike Caesar. www.notesolution.com
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