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Lecture 8

Lecture 8 - The Roman Provinces

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University of Toronto St. George

CLA310 - Religion in the Roman World Wednesday Nov 7, 2012 - MY BIRTHDAY!! Lecture 8 - The Roman Provinces -- Missing First 15 Minutes -- Communities in the Provinces • Three kinds: • 1) Coloniae • Towns set up and founded by Rome for Roman citizens • From very early date - way back in Republic What features make it different from other kinds of town? • • Rome could go into a place that already existed and renamed it coloniae and trans- form the people • Or when there were land crisis in Italy native born Roman citizens who didn’t have land could be given land out in a colony in an area that would become a province • Most colonies involve Roman citizens who are very Roman (speak latin, carry tradi- tional religious practices, worship of traditional deities, familiarity with religious and civil law) • When Rome founded colonies in Italy, the whole peninsula is not Rome; originally Italy was full of tribes which dialects and cultures similar to Rome but not identical Coloniae would have Roman institutions like pontifices, augerers, etc • • People who were specially trained were brought out to the colonies • duovuiri - 2 officials; small scale version of consuls, kind of like having 2 mayors • The founding of the colony would mirror the founding of Rome Auspices taken in the colonies based on the myth of Romulus and Remus watching • birds • Dig a furrow over what was to be boundary of the city - sanctus but not necessarily a pomerium • 2) Municipiae Not full on Roman citizens but had latin rights - watered down version of ROman citi- • zenship • Didn’t have same voting rights • If you were a local magistrate in one of these communities, after you were done with your term you could become a full on Roman citizen Under pressure to act as Roman as possible • • Would hope to turn into a coloniae • 3) Towns without Roman status • Had no special status The people may have own gov’t and citizenship • • Romans might say they belonged to a city but they aren’t a Roman city - we rule them • They wouldn’t consider themselves without citizenship • Quitos? • Native identity perhaps more important than becoming Roman • Most traditional Roman culture in colonies, and later in municipiae are you to find the same Roman influence but a little watered down. Towns without Roman status will likely preserve their native traditions CLA310 - Religion in the Roman World Wednesday Nov 7, 2012 - MY BIRTHDAY!! Lecture 8 - The Roman Provinces • Under Caracalla everyone gets Roman citizenship • Pre-caracalla vs post-caracalla (212) changes view of citizenship If you get expelled from your community you lose all citizenship (post-Caracalla) • Gaius, Institutes 2.5-7 • On provincial soil - not religiousus as their ownership depends on Roman people or Caesar • Treated as if it were Whatever in the provinces is not consecrated as sacer, but is treated as though it were pro-sacro • (as if it were sacer) • Basically the Romans dealt with the property of Gods in the provinces by assuming that land for native gods is still sacer so as not to rock the boat • Not uprooting normal religious structures How does this work in practice? • 10.4c - d - communication between Pliny the younger and Trajan • What kind of authority does Pliny have? • What is Pliny’s concern in each letter? Why does he consult Trajan? • Letter 1 about Temple of Mater Magna • Native cult, no Roman tradition • They want to move the temple and there is no ritual for it • In Rome if you involve the gods property you have to have a special performance so the god(ess) knows what goes on (don’t worry your temple isn’t going anywhere!) • Pliny writes to Trajan because he was the ponitificus maximus and supposed to be the main specialist • Desire to seek favor of the emperor? • The province had been really badly managed before and Pliny is a very precise person (ahem like me!) • There weren’t a ton of laws he Romans could implant on provinces and Pliny did not have a lot of st rupture when he got there • He was ware of the Gaius’law but wasn’t sure if it applied to the province • These letters were kept in order to be consulted later • Letter 2 - moving bodies • People want to move bodies because of damage • What is Trajan’s response? How does it relate to Gaius’s discussion of Roman property law? • Letter 1 The response is from an imperial scribe whose duty is just to deal with correspondents • from Provinces • They would have the training to respond properly • He may have run it by Trajan or may not have • Trajan says to go ahead and move the temple as the soil doesn’t have same status as ours • How does this relate to what Gaius had said? • Sort of in tandem and sort of contradictory • Letter 2 CLA310 - Religion in the Roman World Wednesday Nov 7, 2012 - MY BIRTHDAY!! Lecture 8 - The Roman Provinces • Trajan says go ahead and move it • Gaius would treat it as religiosus but Trajan says don’t sweat it Calendars • Maintain some sort of regularity and ties with provinces • 2 types of calendars which are remarkable similar • No native festivals **She will probably test on calendars • • Incredible interesting calendar in Duro Europus • Jewish and Christian cult sites in this place • Multi-ethnic • The calendar found on papyrus is rather different from stone calendars • Festivals mostly for soldiers • Imperial cult plays a huge role • Contrast between province and Rome Making the Calendar • F = fastus (courts can be in session) • C = comitialis (public assemblies and courts can be in session) • N = nefastus (no assemblies or courts) • First three most common • NP = ?nefastus publicus (uncertain: no courts and assemblies, major festival) • EN = endotercisus (nefastus in the morning, fastus the rest of the day) • Time as something you can give over to the gods • Gods are owed time • What are you supposed to do during the time you give over tot he god? • Bans on mourning in ludi seculares • On festival day you can’t appear in mourning (which could go on fo
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