Lecture 1 - Introduction: Geography, Language &Archaic Greece
Monday, Jan. 7/2013
Covers about 750-350 BC. From the beginning of Greek time-keeping (i.e. History) to rise of
Philip of Macedon.
Association: the ways in which various types of communities in the Greek world were formed.
Including: polis formation; cult associations; ‘colonies’& metropoleis and the relationship
between colony and mothercity; Panhellenism and Greek identity.
Movement: association implies movement. Covers things such as: travel/trade;Archaic coloniza-
tion; links between regions; movement of ideas.
Material: the physical material created by Greeks and its reflection on identity and manifesta-
tions of ‘Greekness'. Includes material from polis and urban centers and those materials associ-
ated with political practice.
Language shows how complex the Greek world is and helps us understand how themes work to-
gether. There were many Greek dialects scattered around the Mediterranean. We can track groups
via dialects. These groups have distinct identities and by tracking these dialects we can see how
colonies were sent out.
Greek dialects include:Attic, which was closely related to Ionic Greek, which can be further di-
vided into the dialects of: East Ionic spoken in Miletus, Smyrna, and around the Hellespont; Cen-
tral Ionic spoken in the Cyclades; West Ionic spoken in Euboea. There is also the dialect ofAe-
olic which can be further divided into the dialects of: Lesbian/Anatolian spoken in Lesbos; Thes-
salian spoken in Thessaly; Boeotian/Balkan spoken in the region to the north ofAttica. Doric
was the most widespread of dialect groups and is often the dialect of choral poetry and includes:
Rhodian spoken in Rhodes; Cos and Calymna spoken on said islands; Thera and Melos spoken in
said regions;Argolic spoken in that area of the peloponnesus; Megarian spoken in Megara;
Corinthian, spoken in Corinth, Messanian and Laconian, spoken in Sparta. Finally there is North-
west Greek which includes: Phocian in the area of Phocus; East and West Locrian; Elean; and
Aetolian. Macedonian was a related language to Northwest Greek but the Greeks were unsure of
the Macedonians were really Greek; the Greeks debated this and so do we. Ionic andAttic are the
main dialects of literature given where our authors come from.