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Lecture 2

CLA160 Lecture 2 Notes.doc

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Johnathon Burgess

CLA160 Lecture 2 Notes Topics 1. “civilization” 2. the ‘big picture’ 3. terms 4. Mesopotamia 5. law code 6. scripts/alphabets 7. Egypt 8. Levant Mesopotamia - influenced ancient Greek and Roman cultures - ancient Mesopotamian civilizations are parallel to Greek and Roman - Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations are older than Greek and Roman civilizations Civilization - social structures – public places - crafts – class structure – special skills - communication, shared language - government, politics – some sort of organization – distinction in power, sometimes linked to social class - religion – sometimes hard to separate from culture and government – power - technology – buildings, agriculture – a prerequisite to civilization - city-state – politics for each, some take over territory or monopolize power through allies - empires – joined city-states under one ruler - judicial system understood by society as a whole – often by government - taxation – to temple or government - military/defence – city-state - civil rights – marriage, inheritance, gender relations, class relations - literacy – record keeping - transportation – later on – chariots, horse - domestication of animals – not so much for food but for work, war - metals – for war, tools, etc. Aspects of “Civilization” - non-nomadic – permanent home - cultivated plants, domesticated animals - property, public buildings - government – domestic policy, laws, foreign policy, public/religious culture - tools – metal, weapons (Bronze and Iron Ages – tools), ships (trade – contact with other civilizations), building things (large structures) - economy - social classes - literacy – perhaps public – who was literate, how much, why – some literate in a functional way – to read public laws, keep track of supplies and livestock, etc. - perhaps public culture – generalized to all people, no personal libraries, etc. – participate in public/religious ways to celebrate culture/city-state belonging Big Picture - homonids – homo sapiens – for the last 100,000 years - Paleolithic – old stone age – stone tools – culture to some extent – i.e. cave paintings – represent life – life more than eating and sleeping - Neolithic – new stone age – agricultural revolution – Jericho, Stonehenge, Catalhuyuk – small civilizations Chronology - B.C./A.D. - ancient methods – Greek Olympiads, Roman consuls, “Julian” calendar Terms - city-state - Mesopotamia – geographical area – means “middle river place” – where Sumerian and Akkadian civilizations originated - Sumer/Sumerian – first dominant civilization, third millennium B.C. – geographical area/culture - Akkad/Akkadian – sometimes rose to power in third millennium, then in the second millennium B.C. came to power – Babylon – preserved/respected Sumerian civilization – geographical area/culture - Semitic – Akkadians spoke a Semitic language - Indo-European - Sea Peoples – civilizations speak of Sea Peoples attacking, taking down civilizations Third Millenium B.C.: Mesopotamia – Sumerians; Greek Prehistory – no civilizations Second Millenium B.C.: Mesopotamia – Akkadians; Greek Prehistory – Minoans, Mycenaeans Minoans and Mycenaeans - Mycenaeans eventually take over Minoan culture in the second half of the second millennium B.C. Ancient Mesopotamia - city-states – empires – Roman empire that starts as a village, then becomes a city-state - monarchy, but shared power systems – in existence in early Greek history – judicial, military, etc. – complex politics - polytheistic, anthropomorphic religion – Greek and Ro
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