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Lecture 4

Lecture 4 - Athens Between the War

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Adriana Brook

CLA160 Lecture 4 JULY112011 Athens Between the War The Pentakontaetia (479 431 BCE) Pentakontaetia = 50 years The Persian threat united all of Greece; receding threat resulted in a crumbling relationship between polis Athens and Sparta: important polis; military powerhouses Athens = navy; Sparta = land army The Persian War led to more democratic changes in Athens The democratic triremes allowed Athens to be successful in terms of their navy The trireme depended on manpow erpeople were paid little Poor people rowers of the trireme wanted political rights in return for their hard work in attaining the victories in the Persian War Athens leaning toward a much more radical democracy, while Sparta remains oligarchic Source of conflict between Athens and Sparta was Athens growing military power, especially in terms of their navy, being the masters of the sea. In addition to using their ships for military purposes, Athens made use of their ships for import and export Therefore, their harbours need to be protected Athenian harbour = Piraeus Athenians built the Long Walls during the Peloponnesian War to safely move people, as well as materials to and from the city to the harbour Sparta wants to prevent Athens growing military power by asking them to remove their walls Athens sees it unfair for Sparta to be asking to remove their walls, but does not remove their own Athens decided to delay their reply, for weeks, and when the Spartan caught on to their deceit, the majority of the wall has already been built Athenian Factionalism (1) Pro-SpartaOligarchic Cimon ostracized 461 BCE Aristocrats Arguments: Spartan helped get rid of Hippias and were self-sacrificing (recall: Battle of Thermopylae 300 Spartans) (2) Anti-SpartaDemocratic Themistocles ostracized 472 BCE Ephialtes Pericles Argument: Spartans refused to help on a number of occasions (i.e. Battle of Marathon, Ionian Revolt, etc.) Ostracism: prevent the rise of an individual (tyrant) Very democratic the voice of the people more important than one Athens afraid of individual powerinfluence Needed 6000 in the assembly (ekklesia) Ostraka (sg. Ostrakon) broken pottery where a name is written down indicating the person whos most likely attain a lot of powerinfluence, and would need to be ostracizedexiled for 10 years Within that time, an ostracized individual cannot participate in the polis, no political right, and cannot enter Athens Although in exile for 10 years, all their possessions remain intact and in their name Themistocles: seemed arrogant and boastful at his achievements and successes (i.e. t riremes) ostracized
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