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Lecture 11

Lecture 11 - Roman Overseas Expansion
Lecture 11 - Roman Overseas Expansion

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University of Toronto St. George
Adriana Brook

CLA160 Lecture 11 JULY29/2011 Roman Overseas Expansion rd nd Early 3 to Late 2 century BCE - Carthage founded by the Phoenicia; its colony • Carthage had developed and it dominated all the Phoenician cities in Africa • It controls a maritime empire; strong naval army • Does not give out citizenship like Rome • Interested in Sicily, South Italy, Corsica, and Sardinia • Known for its trading business and rich agricultural lands First Punic War (264-241 BCE) - Rome vs. Carthage: interests in southern Italy and Syracuse begins to overlap - Mamertines from Campania were mercenaries who had been hired by Pyrrhus to help with his campaigns in the southern part of Italy - The Mamertines take over Messana and the Syracusans attacked them because they took over this strategic part of Sicily - In 264 BCE, the Mamertines were hard pressed by King Hiero of Syracuse and there were two different factions among the Mamertines – some thought they should appeal to Rome for help against Syracuse, some thought they should ask the Carthaginians - Neither faction won out, they were still arguing over whom to ask for help when the Carthaginians made the decision for them and simply asserted themselves and took over Messana - Carthage’s take over of Messana from the Mamertines made them nervous, and provoked war - Battle of Agrigentum: the fight ended in a stalemate because the Carthaginian holed up in Agrigentum, which was located on the other side of Sicily, and the Romans besieged them - The siege lasted from 264 to 262 BCE, and after the Romans realized that they needed a new strategy to deal with the Carthaginian’s naval power - Rome needed to think/improve its military • It built ships with a corvus (raven) • It allows the Romans to change a sea battle to a land battle by ramming their ships into enemy ships, locking two ships together and lowering a plank to allow the soldiers to have a “land” battle - Rome took men to Africa: War in Numidia - Leader of Carthage: Hamilcar • Unable to fight in two fronts: Sicily and Africa - 241 BCE: Hamilcar agreed to negotiate peacewith the Romans • Loss of Sicily, payment of indemnity, and other clauses that lead to the Romans later seizing Corsica and Sardinia Roman Provinces - Latin: provincial (pl. provinciae) • It becomes a region to which Rome assigns a consul or praetor (with an army) each year. - Prorogation (proconsuls, propraetors): the extension of a commander’s imperium beyond the 1yr term; the Roman’s response to its expansion and militarization • The number of territories Rome gained outgrew the number of elected officials available to take on military and administrative duties - Governors: administrative duties, judicial functions, supervised finance, and supply Roman armies • Assigned to a province CLA160 Lecture 11 JULY29/2011 - Senate: Rome’s diplomatic core - Some people decides to take advantage of their position as governors, proconsuls, and other seats of high positions • Led to the creation of Extortion Courts - Roman Empire = a collection of provinces administrated st - Roman Empire = the form of government adopted at the end of the 1 century, in which Rome was ruled by an emperor. - As a result of the First Punic War, Rome’s 1 provinces was Corsica and Sardinia in 227 BCE • Permanent Roman officials were placed outside of Rome: 1 praetor in Corsica and Sardinia, 1 in Sicily and 2 in Rome Ebro River Treaty (226 BCE) - Treaty between Rome and Carthage: Spain was an interest to both • Rome keeps the north side of the Ebro while Carthage keeps south - Rome was later dissatisfied, began expanding south of the river? - Saguntum, a city south of the Ebro River, clearly in Carthage territories was in a relation with Rome • Dispute over hegemony of Sagumtum began - Hannibal, Carthaginian leader, laid sieged to Saguntum in 219 BCE - Begins the Second Punic War Second Punic War (218-201BCE) - An ultimatum was rejected by Carthage, and as a result, Rome declared war - Hannibal was a wise leader and did the unexpected when he was up against the Romans • He marched his army out of Spain, through France and across the Alps into Italy • The Romans thought, being a Carthaginian, he’d come by ship with Carthage’s naval army - Battle of Trebia in 218 BCE, Battle of Lake Trasimene in 217 BCE, and Battle of Cannae in 216 BCE were all disastrous for Rome, especially the Battle of Cannae - At this time, Rome choosesa dictator to lead them: Quintus Fabius Maximus “Cunctator” – “The Delayer” • He planned not to engage in battle but in the face of the Carthaginians slowly retreat away • Use the knowledge of Rome’s geography to wear out Hannibal’s army (lots died on their journey across the Alps) • Rome’s army were also
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