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Lecture 5

CLA160 Lecture 5 Notes

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Johnathon Burgess

CLA160 Lecture 5 Notes Topics 1. the Greek City-States 2. the Dark Age 3. Archaic Greece 4. Greek colonization 5. Sparta 6. Athens 7. Hesiod 8. Homer Dark Age (1200-800 B.C.) - art of writing lost – “dark” to us - archaeology – survey archaeology (settlements, geographical living areas, etc.) - Lefkandi – grave sites from around 950 B.C. – anomaly for Dark Age • satellite burials around the Lefkandi house • burial with weapons – transitional site – aspects of Mycenaean society • veranda/columns – transitional site – aspects of Classical Greece • The Iliad – funeral pyre of Patroclus – in Homer’s account – throw four horses on pyre – at Lefkandi third burial site – skeletons of four horses – preserve tradition of warriors • human sacrifice mentioned with The Iliad – suggested that Lefkandi second site that contains female skeleton adorned in jewelry – woman perhaps a human sacrifice – maybe even buried alive Archaic Greece I - resurgence in settlement – scarcer in Dark Age - settlements – appear to be city-states - city-state vs. city - city-state characteristics • city as well as the peripheral territory • fortification – walls and citadel • citadel is typically the first area to be created/settled – high land (acropolis in Athens) • temples, monuments • self-government, politics, and judicial system • citizens – thought in terms of Athenians and not Athens itself – elite men were citizens, no women/slaves as citizens • all citizens – consider themselves to be equal - rise of the city-state – likely reasons for development – military, religious, political – likely are combination of all three Military Exploration - Hoplite warfare - Hoplite – type of soldier characterized by the use of a hoplos shield – only covered the left side of the body and the right side of the man next to him – shield held on the left arm - hoplos shield – used in the phalanx formation designed for fighting in groups – differs from the Homeric battles during the Trojan War - Hoplite warfare – change in military tactics and impact on society – soldiers have the same armour and must cooperate – all on the same level despite the individual’s fame or prestige - cooperative vs. competitive ethic – everyone is more or less and equal – not just aristocrats and the lower society – therefore they developed a form of communal living Religion and Ritual Explanation - temples the first to be built – first use of resources - not a cognitive shared belief – shared action/ritual – gathering place - city-state may have developed around temple/communal ritual – activity and marking themselves as a certain people – identity Communal Living – Politics and Judicial Systems - laws of Dreros on Crete – 650-600 B.C. - earliest form of law found - limits on power – can be magistrate (kosmos) for a limited time (in this case, ten years) - holding office – limited power - development of judicial system Greek Colonization - with the rise of city-states came the rise of colonization - colonies are city-states that spread but are still somehow connected to the mainland - mark of a polis was the ability to colonize a subsidiary polis - many city-states were established on sea trade routed, high ground, or fertile land – distinguishes important reasons for colonies – defense, trade, and land acquisition - overpopulation – people sent out to look for more fertile land – set up colony and found a new city-state - in The Odyssey – Odysseus thinks as a Greek colonizer in the story of Polyphemus - much competition to find the most fertile land Archaic Age II – Athens an Sparta - Athens and Sparta become two dominant city-states - sources are not contemporary figures – they use sources themselves • Aristotle – 800 years later, in 4 century B.C. nd • Polybius – Hellenistic Age, in 2 centuryst.Cnd • Plutarch – 700-800 years later, in the 1 /2 century A.D. - best evidence for this period is contemporary poetry – the most common media Sparta - mythical lawgiver Lycurgus - lawgiver – name given to just, able people to constitute way of life - double hereditary kingship in Sparta – uncommon in this time, no longer in the era of kings – hereditary generalship – more like military commanders - five ephors – swore on behalf of the city – kept the “kings” in check - extreme militarization of state – dominates large part of the mainland – warriors are citizens - hoplite class – the entire citizen body – young boys are educated in a military school – raised by the state – even as adults they met and ate in a common military eating group - homoioi – “uniform” – equ
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