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Lecture 6

CLA160 Lecture 6 Notes

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Department
Classics
Course
CLA160H1
Professor
Johnathon Burgess
Semester
Winter

Description
CLA160 Lecture 6 Notes Topics 1. Archaic Age literature 1. epic 2. lyric 3. pre-Socratic 2. Archaic Age art/architecture 1. vase painting 2. temples Culture in Archaic Age - art and architecture is an important part of ancient Greek society - temples in Archaic Age – public buildings – Parthenon is dedicated to patron of Athens, Pallas Athene - centrality of art/architecture in everyday life Archaic Age – Greek “Renaissance” - colonization - link to epic poetry - Italian peninsula – Pithekoussai • first Greek colony in western Mediterranean • Cumae – first Greek colony on Italian shore – around 8 century B.C. • Pithekoussai – on the island Ischia • Bay of Naples – later becomes an important place for Romans for st vacations, parties – Vesuvius/Pompeii – eruption in the 1 century A.D. and becomes important location archaeologically - “Nestor’s cup” inscription at Pithekoussai • earliest evidence for the Greek alphabet • Nestor – mythological character – major character in The Iliad who dispenses advice to younger warriors – in one scene he has a large and heavy cup – such a hero that only he was able to lift it • allusion to myth, perhaps The Iliad th • could prove that The Iliad was known and studied by the 8 century B.C. • seems to be a joke – inscription suggests that the cup was designed to be used at partied – proto-symposium • symposium – “together drinking”, drinking party • cup is evidence for aristocrats getting together and drinking wine, telling stories • perhaps shows early evidence for the tendency for gathering and drinking in groups • lyric poetry – often about personal and erotic interests Archaic Age Culture - poetry – organization and pattern - epic tradition – oral, long • Hesiod – didactic • Homer – heroic • Homeric Hymns – praise and narratives of the gods - preservation of knowledge through poetry Homeric Hymns - tend to be much shorter than The Iliad and The Odyssey, and even Hesiod’s poetry - paragraph is longer than average in Homer’s other work - poetry by Hesiod is mainly about the origins of the gods – Theogony - the Homeric Hymns have both these aspects - used for public recitation at festival of specific gods - first complete surviving copies of Homeric epics are Medieval – through papyri fragments that go back to the Hellenistic Period - often copied on papyri from originals - original Homeric script – does not survive – many have been written in the early Archaic Age – most likely in a live audience Lyric Poetry - not many survived - many lyric poets – much variance in style - mainly from the Archaic Age – Theognis, Sappho, etc. - complex meter, sung to music - lyre = lyric - sung by individual or sung by a dancing “chorus” - sometimes performed at public or group settings – festivals as public, marriage as group - lyric is considered more melodic – intonation, voice quality – epics more of a chant - often performed at the aristocratic symposion - content – brief, personal, contemporary, local – divulge/share personal information - Sappho – extremely personal poems - Theognis – politics, class, personal - perform others’ lyric poems – famous poems are repeated – despite that it may not have been the author’s original intention - differentiation from epic poetry which is about heroes from the past, etc. Pre-Socratic Philosophers - Lesbos – homeland of Sappho - Ionia – geographical location for the lower part of Asia Minor - pre-Socratics often live in this general area – later Archaic Age philosophy – Ionia, often from Miletus - verse and prose – prose began in later 6 century B.C. - rational inquiry – astronomy, geography - challenge to conventional thought - Pythagoras – math (Pythagorean Theorem), music, mysticism - poetry – technology for keeping thoughts organized and framing ideas in front of an audience - ancient Greek culture also involved science and technology – proof – astronomy, math, etc. - attempt to understand, figure things out – hypotheses on basis of what they knew - Pythagoras – multitask – from Asia Minor to southern Italian peninsula – ability to be profound, abstract – soul, afterlife, as well as concrete math Pre-Socratic Challenge of Hesiod/Homer - Heraclitus • Fragment 35: “Hesiod is most men’s teacher. Men think he knew very many things, a man who did not know day or night! They are one.” • Fragment 43: “Homer was wrong in saying: “Would that strife might perish from among gods and men!” He did not see that he was praying for the destruction of the universe; for, if his prayers were heard,
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