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Lecture 11

CLA160 Lecture 11 Notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Johnathon Burgess

CLA160 Lecture 11 Notes Topics: 1. Acropolis and Politics 2. Macedon and Alexander 3. Hellenistic Kingdoms 4. Hellenistic Culture i. Science, Technology ii. Philosophy, Religion iii. Literature iv. Art and Architecture Alexander - argued that Philip is the true conqueror - setup of the kingdom was mainly done by Philip - consequences of his actions were enormous, after the death of his father Philip - empire only lasted about a decade because of his early death - died at 33 years of age - the Hellenistic world – historical time period after the death of Alexander – Greek mainland was modified, as well as the Near East and Egypt Key Issues 1. historical contexts of acropolis buildings 2. historical context of Alexander and whether he is admirable 3. whether the Hellenistic world was Greek or multicultural 4. what was new about the Hellenistic culture Acropolis - building program by Pericles - perhaps built with the tribute from allies - controversially – used money given by allies to build a naval fleet – according to ancient sources - built in the 440s, 430s B.C. - slave labour, silver/gold/ivory materials - Athens was accused of forcing allies to give tribute on the ground of building a naval fleet but instead using it to build the structures - not the first temple to be dedicated to Pallas Athene - earlier temple destroyed by Persian sack – Athens forced to evacuate city for a time - not forgotten by Athenians as they reconstructed their city - focus on relief/architectural images on the acropolis – Parthenon and temple of Nike Parthenon - images on pediments, inner frieze and metopes - metope – on outside of temple that run around the temple above the porch – square spaces between relief lines, triglyphs - outer column of Parthenon have Doric columns - in the temple of Nike – smaller Ionic columns, frieze relief - the Parthenon suffered much damage over time – was reconstructed and fixed many times - explosion in the time of the Turks – destroyed some internal structure - major earthquakes over time – in the 1894 earthquake - current Parthenon is a restoration - great cult statue in the center - images on the Parthenon • pediment - images of Athena - birth of Athena - contest between Poseidon and Athena • metopes - Trojan War - Amazonomachy - Gigantomachy - Centauromachy • friezes - pan-Athenic procession - festival/ritual parades Temple of Nike - smaller building at the entrance to the acropolis - slender Ionic columns - disassembled by the Turks - reconstructed multiple times - frieze portrays Trojan War or the Persian Invasion Themes of Acropolis Sculpture - metopes in Parthenon - occurrence in two time zones - Olympians defeating the giants – maintain order - Athenians establish control and therefore identify with the Olympians - heroes defeating centaurs – humans defeating wild world - heroes defeating Amazons – human male controlling uppity women who do not know their place – putting women in their place - Trojan War perhaps – Greeks vs. Easterners – previous temple had been sacked by Persians - Nike Temple – either battle of Troy or Persian invasion - art used as propaganda for Greeks Macedon and Alexander - Macedonia not the most powerful state - not truly Greek - much argument on whether or not Alexander and Philip were even Greek - Alexander conquest – Near East, Mesopotamia, Egypt - incredible expansion of Macedonian power - “Alexander Romance” stories - much of the literature on Alexander is lost - indirect information on Alexander - in time, myths and legends were told about him – therefore it is unknown exactly what is true about him Macedon - north of Thessaly, west of Thrace - monarchy, tribes - uncertain whether or not it is truly Greek - however, Macedon is allowed to compete in Pan-Hellenic games at Olympia - modern politics • Greece, with province “Macedonia” • “Republic of Macedonia”, former province of Yugoslavia • “Former Yugoslavic Republic of Macedonia” - Demosthenes quote: “[Philip] is not only no Greek…[he’s] no way akin to Greeks, …not even a barbarian of a place honorable to mention; in fact, a vile fellow of Macedon” - when Philip was attacking – use rhetoric by Demosthenes to convince the Greeks that he was not even a true Greek – warn the Greeks against him - Isocrates – Philip to unify Greece , attack Persia in retaliation for the Persian War – in favour of him – unification of nation Philip of Macedon - expansion of Macedon - innovations with the phalanx - diplomacy – not always attacking at once – made temporary alliances - silver and gold – much money, mines – to finance expansion - tensions with Athens – recognized Macedon’s growing power - warnings of Demosthenes – did not do much until too late – ally with Thebes to fight Philip - battle of Chaeronea – league of Greeks in 338 B.C. – Athens/Thebes loses - full circle after tyrants, democracy – political reversal back to monarchy in Greek world - assassination of Philip on 336 B.C., two years after his victories - creates Greek nation and loses it after two years – parallel to Alexander Alexander the Great - tutored by Aristotle - becomes king at age of twenty in 336 B.C. - somewhat ruthless - razes the rebellion of Thebes - attacks the Persian empire – intention of Philip - conquers Asia Minor, then Egypt - founding of Alexandria in Egypt, visit to the shrine of Amen - then returns to Mesopotamia to take over the Persian Empire Alexander’s Controversy - resentful Macedonians – thought Philip was the greater man – Alexander inherited the kingdom and got lucky – nervous about his behaviour - welcome of Persia into the army – mix of Persian and Greek cultures - unhappy troops – troops loved him but got weary – forced him to turn back at the Indis River - disastrous return for the East – much of the army died - according to stories – bad behaviour – being drunk, murdering, etc. – may have led to the breakdown of his health - died in 323 B.C. - breakdown of “empire” after his death – hard enough to maintain during his life - succession – conflict over who should be in charge - after the conflict – number of smaller Hel
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