Greek writer Homer’s Illyad- describes a greek, and what they
What is history?
-The study of the past.
Greek writer Herodotus used the word historia – meaning
‘inquiry’ of the past.
ORIGINS OF CIVILIZATION:
Stone Age : Divided in two era’s
-Paleolithic Era- ‘old age’ 100 000 thousand years ago.
-Neolithic Era –‘new stone age’ 11 thousand years ago.
THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD:
Archeologists find their recorded stuff through looking at different
layers of stratigraphy, and bones, and polin, and seeds, to determine
what kind of plants or humans lived in the area.
THE FIRST MODERN HUMANS:
Paleolithic era is when humans were first spotted. – Homosapiens have
been found 100 000 years ago during this era in the mediteranean, and
200 000 years ago Neanderthal man was found in Europe.
The Paleolithic people ate more wild food . Like they would just hunt
and go eat a bear, (kind of raw) or eat fish or plants. And so on.
During the end of this period- the humans started to create tools, and
started to produce art items like cave paintings, and produced music. Tanjina Yeasmin
I.e- The painting of a bird head stick-figure inside the cave, in France- 15
Neolithic era (Neo stone age) is after Paleolithic, when humans started
to commit in agriculture, and raise their own food, and eat domesticated
food and animals.
Note that for about 90% of the time of existence of humans, we typically
ate wild food, and lived off them.
1) Jericho- This was the first building made by a lot of people, as a
public place rather than an individual housing. In Israel (5000 BC) two
thousand people lived here.
2) Catalhoyuke – This place basically looks like basement rooms with
no roof. It was in Turkey.6300 BC. Five thousand people lived here .
People who lived in this region men died at 34, women at 4, and had
about 4 children, and suffered from Anemia.
3) Stonehenge – Built of very very heavy stones, with one stone in the
middle. In England. No one knows how people moved those very heavy
rocks. People think that this place had involved with rituals and deaths.
-found in Austran alps- died at 3300 BC. His clothing were made of
animal skin, and he had rib fractures , was no healthy , and carried
THE BEGINNING OF AGRICULTURE:
Mesolithic Period: (Middle stone age) : This period was when humans
started to adapt to the weather, because of rise in sea levels, and species
began to go extinct. Tanjina Yeasmin
THE FIRST CIVILIZATIONS- EASTERN MEDDITERRANEAN:
Bronze Age: Where Bronze was used. In 2500 BC – 1200 BC. (older)
Iron Age: 1000 BC Iron was used for tools. (newer)
THE MESOPOTAMIAN CIVILIZATION:
“Mesopotamia”- land between rivers. “Tigris and Euphrates”
-Climate is hot and very dry.
-Barely any trees and civilization did not exist at first.
-Land didn’t have a lot of natural resources.
-After a while- the people had to dig and bring water from the river and
-First place that started with writing. Their system of writing is called
the cuneiform – sort of like pictograph This language ended up being
called the SUMERIAN language. Over time this changed to a phonetic
system- Words / letters that relate to like the way things sound or
-Second language used in Mesopotamia- Akkadian- Semitic language .
BRONZE AGE MESOPOTAMIA:
3000 BC- Predynastic
3000-2300 BC- Early Dynastic
2300-2200 BC- Akkadian
2100-2000 BC- UR III Dynasty
2000-1595 BC- Old Babylonian
1595-1450 BC- Dark Age
1450-1155 BC- Kassites Tanjina Yeasmin
This shit Mesopotamia place had like – Ziggurat temples that looks like
pyramids, but had solid grounds in between the pyramids. (Was not
completely useless like the pyramids) – this place was built for worship-
kings made them so that their dynasty lasted longer.
The temples were highly regarded in Mesopotamia- women and priests
loved . There were more than one of their so called gods there- statue
gods for them.
Over time, the kings made a place fo