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CLA160 Lecture 1 .docx

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Johnathon Burgess

Tanjina Yeasmin CLA160S1 Lecture 1 WEEK 1 (Pages 1-26) Greek writer Homer’s Illyad- describes a greek, and what they honor. What is history? -The study of the past. Greek writer Herodotus used the word historia – meaning ‘inquiry’ of the past. ORIGINS OF CIVILIZATION: Stone Age : Divided in two era’s -Paleolithic Era- ‘old age’ 100 000 thousand years ago. -Neolithic Era –‘new stone age’ 11 thousand years ago. THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD: Archeologists find their recorded stuff through looking at different layers of stratigraphy, and bones, and polin, and seeds, to determine what kind of plants or humans lived in the area. THE FIRST MODERN HUMANS: Paleolithic era is when humans were first spotted. – Homosapiens have been found 100 000 years ago during this era in the mediteranean, and 200 000 years ago Neanderthal man was found in Europe. The Paleolithic people ate more wild food . Like they would just hunt and go eat a bear, (kind of raw) or eat fish or plants. And so on. During the end of this period- the humans started to create tools, and started to produce art items like cave paintings, and produced music. Tanjina Yeasmin CLA160S1 Lecture 1 I.e- The painting of a bird head stick-figure inside the cave, in France- 15 000 BC. Neolithic era (Neo stone age) is after Paleolithic, when humans started to commit in agriculture, and raise their own food, and eat domesticated food and animals. Note that for about 90% of the time of existence of humans, we typically ate wild food, and lived off them. Some Places- 1) Jericho- This was the first building made by a lot of people, as a public place rather than an individual housing. In Israel (5000 BC) two thousand people lived here. 2) Catalhoyuke – This place basically looks like basement rooms with no roof. It was in Turkey.6300 BC. Five thousand people lived here . People who lived in this region men died at 34, women at 4, and had about 4 children, and suffered from Anemia. 3) Stonehenge – Built of very very heavy stones, with one stone in the middle. In England. No one knows how people moved those very heavy rocks. People think that this place had involved with rituals and deaths. THE ICEMAN -found in Austran alps- died at 3300 BC. His clothing were made of animal skin, and he had rib fractures , was no healthy , and carried bronze axe. THE BEGINNING OF AGRICULTURE: Mesolithic Period: (Middle stone age) : This period was when humans started to adapt to the weather, because of rise in sea levels, and species began to go extinct. Tanjina Yeasmin CLA160S1 Lecture 1 THE FIRST CIVILIZATIONS- EASTERN MEDDITERRANEAN: Bronze Age: Where Bronze was used. In 2500 BC – 1200 BC. (older) Iron Age: 1000 BC Iron was used for tools. (newer) THE MESOPOTAMIAN CIVILIZATION: The Land: “Mesopotamia”- land between rivers. “Tigris and Euphrates” -Climate is hot and very dry. -Barely any trees and civilization did not exist at first. -Land didn’t have a lot of natural resources. -After a while- the people had to dig and bring water from the river and make stuff. Literature wise: -First place that started with writing. Their system of writing is called the cuneiform – sort of like pictograph This language ended up being called the SUMERIAN language. Over time this changed to a phonetic system- Words / letters that relate to like the way things sound or appear. -Second language used in Mesopotamia- Akkadian- Semitic language . BRONZE AGE MESOPOTAMIA: 3000 BC- Predynastic 3000-2300 BC- Early Dynastic 2300-2200 BC- Akkadian 2100-2000 BC- UR III Dynasty 2000-1595 BC- Old Babylonian 1595-1450 BC- Dark Age 1450-1155 BC- Kassites Tanjina Yeasmin CLA160S1 Lecture 1 This shit Mesopotamia place had like – Ziggurat temples that looks like pyramids, but had solid grounds in between the pyramids. (Was not completely useless like the pyramids) – this place was built for worship- kings made them so that their dynasty lasted longer. The temples were highly regarded in Mesopotamia- women and priests loved . There were more than one of their so called gods there- statue gods for them. Over time, the kings made a place fo
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