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Lecture 12

CLA160 Lecture 12 Notes

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Johnathon Burgess

CLA160 Lecture 12 Notes The Roman Empire - Romans values Greek culture, literature, and art – embedded, transformed it for their own civilization - therefore Greek civilization did not die - similarities in Near East with Sumer - connections between Greek and Roman civilization Rome - first a small town, a village at the time of the first half of the first century B.C. - small town existed on Italian peninsula - many different native Italic people lived there • Etruscans were very powerful at the beginning • Greeks in the southern areathnd Sicily – colonized in the western Mediterranean in the 5 century B.C., even before Rome became a village - Carthage as a Phoenician colony that became a powerful player in the first half of the first century B.C. Italian Peninsula - Etruscans – lived in the area of modern day Tuscany - Etruria – area where the Etruscans lived - Latium – middle part of the peninsula – general geographical area - Romans and related Italic tribes with similar languthe and culture - Rome was just one of them until about the 5 century B.C. - Magna Graecia – “great Greece” – refers to southern area of peninsula including Sicily where the Greeks colonized and established Greek civilization with Greek culture th - Bay of Naples – one of the first places the Greeks colonized in the 8 century B.C. – at one point, the Etruscans had interest in the Bay of Naples Non-Roman Peoples - north and south - Celts – north of the Alps, north Italy, modern-day France area - Celts were mobile with no permanent buildings, had oral based cultures, metal use, but was not typical civilization of Greek poleis – “barbarians” - 390 B.C. – major setback to the Roman Republic when the Celts sack Rome – looted and moved on - Celts as aggressive and effective fighters – Julius Caesar made his name as a Roman army general in the Cthtic area in the 50s B.C. - Etruscans – legend of 5 century B.C. Etruscan kings that were overthrown to begin the Roman republic - Roman legends of Etruscan rule – stories and legends seem semi-historical in that they are based on true events - Etruscans as the dominant power in Italic peninsula - legend of the six kings – the sixth king and the rape of Lucretia - Carthaginians – Carthage is in north Africa – Phoenician colony - Phoenicians – Levant, eastern shore of the Mediterranean – relatively small cities but very economically powerful – shipping and trading - Phoenicians as the conduit of cultural artifacts and practices at the time – creation of trading posts that later became colonies - Carthage became more powerful as time went on - Carthage as a major power for western Mediterranean – boats, military-naval powers – interest in western Sicily – clashed with the Romans when Rome became a major power Roman Expansion - small Roman area in 500 B.C. - beginning of the first Punic War in 264 B.C. – expanded into the Italic Peninsula - end of the Punic Wars in 146 B.C. – over Spain and Macedonia, Illyria - at the death of Caesar in 44 B.C. – Roman Republic was much larger – control of Carthage, Gaul, eastern Mediterranean Etruscans - dominant in the northern Italian peninsula in the first half of the first millennium - influenced by the Greeks • alphabet • tumuli – burial tombs, hills • artifacts – vases with Greek myth • temples - proficient artisans - valued and respected Greek art – imported Greek vases especially - tumuli – burial with artwork and precious artifacts – some survive time - large public buildings that look like Greek temples - augury – complicated ways by which priests predicted the future - Etruscan language is unknown but it is known that Greek alphabetic script was used – Romans borrowed the script as well Early Rome - prehistoric – archaeological evidence - Roman history begins around 200 B.C. – practice of recorded history - everythinthbefore 200s B.C. – legend, not surviving written records, etc. - by the 8 century B.C. – some hills near Tiber were settled - the 8 -6 centuries B.C. – growing village, trade with Greece – not just Greek area, also colonies in the peninsula and Sicily - the 5 century B.C. – legendary Etruscan kings of Rome – Livy th - the 6 century B.C. – in the forum, the temple to Jupiter and Juno is constructed – cooperation to erect public buildings and some form of organized religion - Roman forum – parallels to Greek agora – central open area - Rome founded on the seven hills of Rome Origins of Romans and Rome - there are two popular myths of Roman origin - origin of Romans as a people – Greek myth – Aeneas escapes the destruction of Troy – wanders and eventually marries an Italic native princess Lavinia - explanation of the founding of Rome as a city – Italian legend – Romulus and Remus raised by a she-wolf – they survive and Romulus founds the city of Rome - similarity to early Greek myth of Italic origins – Hesiod’s Theogony tells a version of the story that includes Odysseus which is not accepted over time - quote by Hesiod: “And Circe loved steadfast Odysseus and bare Agrius and Latinus …And they ruled over the famous Tyrresenians, very far off in a recess of the holy islands” - early Greek reports claim that Odysseus founded Rome with Aeneas - canonical accounts of the myths come from two sources – Livy’s History and Virgil’s Aeneid - two most well-known accounts are late sources – later became the most famous and accepted examples of these legends – they are the most influential versions - both Livy and Virgil are reflecting their values of the past – their present influences their histories Virgil - la
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