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Lecture 13

CLA160 Lecture 13 Notes

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Johnathon Burgess

CLA160 Lecture 13 Notes Expansion of Rome - first century B.C. is the last century of the Roman Republic - Rome’s relationship and conflict with its own allies and external peoples on the Italian peninsula - much of the early history of Rome depends of legend, if not myth - generally – Roman Republic attempts to sort out who has what power - not totalitarian – some say – assemblies give some chance to vote and have a say – judthiary and legal systems as formal and public displays of law - in the 4 century B.C. – expansion of Rome – mainly in the Italian peninsula - by the 3 century B.C. – invasions and battles as a result of expansion – conflict in the western Mediterranean - the Third Punic War – also a western Mediterranean conflict – in the mid-2 nd century Bnd. - in the 2 century B.C. – conflict in the eastern Mediterranean - relationships between groups of people in Roman society – patricians on top, middle plebians, then freedmen, with the slaves at the bottom - movement between classes – only some movement - equites – “equestrians” – military term for cavalry – powerful social group that could move up – power not necessarily from heritage as with the patricians - equestrians are powerful because they are rich and dominate the major economical business – can interact with the patricians - equites can sometimes become part of the senate - basic patron-client relationship - comitia centunata – voting – given to the more economically wealthy - comitia tribute – more democratic assembly – becomes most popular - patricians – wealthy in that they had farm land - considered undignified for patricians to engage in business – land as source of wealth – businessmen respected for wealth but not for social class – idea of the “nouveau riche” Twelve Tables - history of the first few centuries th - from Twelve Tables in 5 century B.C.: “women, even though they are of full age, because4 of their levity of mind shall be under guardianship” - sometimes aristocratic women could get away with more despite strict laws Sack of Rome by the Celts - around 390 B.C., ancient Celtic peoples spread and sack Rome - sack later creates fear and distrust of outer peoples – barbarian Celts - much fighting in France and British Isles, as well as Spain – when subduing the Celts - despite being defined as “barbarians” the Celts had beautiful and sophisticated art - statue of the “dying Gaul” – testimony of victory of Pergamum over Gau;s Early Roman Conflict - moving into the 4 century B.C. - Samnites – Italic tribe of central and southern Italy – conquered by the Roman army - in the second half of the 4 century B.C. and early 3 century B.C. – Romans finally defeat them and take over the area - citizenship arrangements for conquered peoples in Italy - military or civilian colonies in Italy – given some civil rights but not full citizenship rights - early first century B.C. – “Social War” – not because it was between social classes – war was between Rome and its Italian allies - name for ally – “socrus” - in 89 B.C. Rome finally gave the Italic tribes full citizenship status - in the mid-2 ndcentury B.C. – so successful in conquest and had so much money given in through tribute and looting – did not require the Italian tribes to pay taxes - different and successful ways in interacting - sometimes the use of brute force was employed, and other times diplomacy was used - simple political relationships Pyrrhic War rd - early 3 century B.C. - Pyrrhus – Greek king of Epirus – closest area of Greece to Italy - Pyrrhus aids Tarentum – brought army over – but not able to conquer Rome and eventually the army is so exhausted that they leave - result – Rome controls all of the Italian peninsula Punic Wars - three Punic Wars - take place from the 3 to 2d ndcenturies B.C. - Phoenician – Latin Punic - Hannibal – Carthaginian invader of Italy in the Second Punic War - Second Punic War is the more famous Punic War – Carthaginian general travels through Spain, though the Alps, into the Italian peninsula – incredibly successful but ultimately fails because they are unable to get the Italian allies to join against Rome - Second Punic War – 218-201 B.C. - Romans sent an army to Spain, a main outpost of Carthage - engaged Carthaginians in Spain, and also sent an army to North Africa – therefore Rome defeated the armies in North Africa - Carthage dominates North Africa and Spain, as well as the major Mediterranean islands and western half of Sicily - eastern half of Sicily is controlled by the Greeks - first two Punic Wars were the result of third parties - stand-off – smaller cities and states creating alliances with larger ones – smaller skirmishes during which they call in the help of their allies - Rome began to have an interest in Sicily – Greek peoples – first Punic War was over Sicily with a full-scale war - Rome took control of Spain in the 2 ndcentury B.C. from the Carthaginians after the Second Punic War - Romans were fearful of the continued existence of Carthage - fear resulted in the Third Punic War - Rome wiped out Carthage and sowed salt into the ground to prevent anything from growing on Carthaginian soil for a long time Cato the Elder on Carthage - comments on Carthage – famous prejudice of Carthaginians - famously began to end every speech he gave with, “Carthage must be destroyed…” - in 146 B.C. – Carthage is destroyed – Corinth is coincidentally also destroyed - sometimes Rome fought multiple enemies at the same time Rome and the East nd - war with Macedon in the early 2 century B.C. - more battles and revolts to follow – with Macedon, Greek “leagues”, and Near East kingdoms - end of the Macedonian Kingdom – Hellenistic Kingdoms - many Greek cities banded together in alliances – with which Macedonia did not always get along - various Greek states – conflicts between the poleis - Rome often got “sucked in” – alliance with one of the poleis in conflict - perhaps Rome did not intend on becoming a wor
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