Class Notes (837,346)
Canada (510,232)
Classics (1,714)
CLA160H1 (318)
Lecture 14

CLA160 Lecture 14 Notes

6 Pages
114 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Classics
Course
CLA160H1
Professor
Johnathon Burgess
Semester
Winter

Description
CLA160 Lecture 14 Notes Social Classes - equestrian and senatorial class – allies - equestrians vs. patricians – “publicani” issues - patricians – land and farming - equestrians – businessmen - land – patricians take better land - land and soldiers – property needed to enlist in the army – veterans want land upon retirement - soldiers and generals – armies more loyal to the leader than to the “country” - tribune power – use of full tribune-ships – bestowal of favours to the masses – idea of favours to potential clients - Italian allies – want more political rights - “publicani” issues - whether equestrians have rights in court – able to prosecute patricians - equestrians do not like it when patricians took advantage of native peoples because they wanted to, but in a “legal” way Violence - 133 B.C. – Tiberius Gracchus assassinated - Gaius Gracchus is assassinated a decade later as well - 80s – civil war – Sulla an Marius - Sulla becomes dictator - “dictator” not as bad a word at first – called upon to her with a large amount of power for six months - Sulla is different however – made himself a dictator, was not chosen – to best rivals and control – serves for six years - 70s/60s rivalry of Pompey the Great and Crassus - 60s – “first triumvirate” – Julius Caesar, Pompey, Crassus - 50s – Caesar’s good career in Gaul, Pompey becomes powerful in Rome – allies have disagreements - 49-45 B.C. – civil war erupts – Caesar and Pompey - marks the end of the Republic and beginning of civil war Caesar - he and Pompey: “wrestling with issues greater than they themselves” - “broken system” – stagnation – too many “checks and balances”, so to speak - no way of dealing with disagreements - “sick” government – one way of looking at it Tiberius Gracchus - tribune in 133 B.C. - issue – granting public land to small farmers/potential soldiers - solution causes political problems - patrician landowners resist - senate fears Tiberius Gracchus’ patronage power will grow - power he is using as a tribune – used to pass legislation and keep popularity among the people – he is doing something many people will be happy with - keeping the masses happy – therefore becoming a “super patron”, so to speak – wins lots of support from the people - people are seen as many potential clients of Tiberius Gracchus - violence erupts as a result - Tiberius Gracchus takes “shortcuts” – used tribuneship in untraditional ways - Tiberius did not always consult the senate regarding decisions - fellow tribune is disposed – Tiberius Gracchus acted as a singular individual - failure to gain the support of the other tribunes – therefore did not accept the checks to his power - ultimately killed by mob violence – instigated by the senate Gaius Gracchus - brother of Tiberius Gracchus - also tribune, with similar views to Tiberius – ten years later, however - much of the senatorial class becomes upset with him as well - new reforms • grain given out or prices fixed • equestrian publicani control the extortion court – causes equestrian- patrician conflict - pushed the issue of who serves on the extortion courts – wanted equestrians as jury – sp that prosecution of patricians would be more successful - also killed by mob violence Marius - made a name for himself as a general - elected consul for five years – “new man” at the end of the 2 nd century B.C. - not technically allowed to be consul for that long – unusual – only allowed once every ten years by law - great military skill – defeats “German” tribes - reforms the army – recruits soldiers without property – to serve in the army, there was a land requirement - tries to secure land for veteran soldiers – senatorial resistance – expectation of a reward for service - became involved with political allies with similar goals - rise of Sulla – rival of Marius Sulla - army – kingdom of Pontus - Marius moves to gain command – therefore takes command from Sulla - most momentous event – Sulla vs. Marius - Sulla turns the army around and takes Rome – attacks his own people and country – civil warfare - Roman army acts out of loyalty to a single general, and not the state - Sulla as the cause of civil warfare - marches on Rome to get his command back – goes back out – manages to take command from Sulla - much civil warfare – goes back and forth - Sulla finally gets command back – many political killings - Sulla becomes dictator 82-78 B.C. - idea of “bringing order to chaos” - modification of the senate, attempt to give more power back to the senatorial class – more strict, conservative system - then retires and allows the political system to continue as a republic Pompey and Crassus - Pompey gains military success from fighting the pirates – cleared the seas or the tribal people who went about looting and preying upon ships – pirates often kidnapped prominent leaders for ransom - no coast guard or navy at the time - Crassus – enormously wealthy – supresses the slave revolt led by Spartacus in 73 B.C. - Crassus also was an active politician and sometimes an active general - non-Roman slave Spartacus – gladiator who revolts and convinces slaves to run away – creates a runaway slave army/mob - Romans have trouble containing/defeating the slave army - Crassus leads the Roman forces that defeat part of the slave forces - 70 B.C. – Pompey and Crassus as co-consuls - counter pro-senate reforms against Sulla - 60s B.C. – Pompey’s spectacular military victories in the East – Syria, etc. - Pompey named “Magnus” – “the Great” – becomes the most popular Roman in the Roman state at the time - Cicero – orator and politician – articulate, persuasive speaker, also a defense lawyer – very successful and gained many friends – not too militarily based - very good at making speeches against opponents – example of Clodia - “new man” – equestrian - Cicero as “new man” consul in 63 B.C. – becomes an ally of Pompey - Pompey is resisted by the senate – on land for military veterans - despite his military success, the senate is resistant – did not like the large amount
More Less

Related notes for CLA160H1

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit