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Lecture 14

CLA160 Lecture 14 Notes

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Johnathon Burgess

CLA160 Lecture 14 Notes Social Classes - equestrian and senatorial class – allies - equestrians vs. patricians – “publicani” issues - patricians – land and farming - equestrians – businessmen - land – patricians take better land - land and soldiers – property needed to enlist in the army – veterans want land upon retirement - soldiers and generals – armies more loyal to the leader than to the “country” - tribune power – use of full tribune-ships – bestowal of favours to the masses – idea of favours to potential clients - Italian allies – want more political rights - “publicani” issues - whether equestrians have rights in court – able to prosecute patricians - equestrians do not like it when patricians took advantage of native peoples because they wanted to, but in a “legal” way Violence - 133 B.C. – Tiberius Gracchus assassinated - Gaius Gracchus is assassinated a decade later as well - 80s – civil war – Sulla an Marius - Sulla becomes dictator - “dictator” not as bad a word at first – called upon to her with a large amount of power for six months - Sulla is different however – made himself a dictator, was not chosen – to best rivals and control – serves for six years - 70s/60s rivalry of Pompey the Great and Crassus - 60s – “first triumvirate” – Julius Caesar, Pompey, Crassus - 50s – Caesar’s good career in Gaul, Pompey becomes powerful in Rome – allies have disagreements - 49-45 B.C. – civil war erupts – Caesar and Pompey - marks the end of the Republic and beginning of civil war Caesar - he and Pompey: “wrestling with issues greater than they themselves” - “broken system” – stagnation – too many “checks and balances”, so to speak - no way of dealing with disagreements - “sick” government – one way of looking at it Tiberius Gracchus - tribune in 133 B.C. - issue – granting public land to small farmers/potential soldiers - solution causes political problems - patrician landowners resist - senate fears Tiberius Gracchus’ patronage power will grow - power he is using as a tribune – used to pass legislation and keep popularity among the people – he is doing something many people will be happy with - keeping the masses happy – therefore becoming a “super patron”, so to speak – wins lots of support from the people - people are seen as many potential clients of Tiberius Gracchus - violence erupts as a result - Tiberius Gracchus takes “shortcuts” – used tribuneship in untraditional ways - Tiberius did not always consult the senate regarding decisions - fellow tribune is disposed – Tiberius Gracchus acted as a singular individual - failure to gain the support of the other tribunes – therefore did not accept the checks to his power - ultimately killed by mob violence – instigated by the senate Gaius Gracchus - brother of Tiberius Gracchus - also tribune, with similar views to Tiberius – ten years later, however - much of the senatorial class becomes upset with him as well - new reforms • grain given out or prices fixed • equestrian publicani control the extortion court – causes equestrian- patrician conflict - pushed the issue of who serves on the extortion courts – wanted equestrians as jury – sp that prosecution of patricians would be more successful - also killed by mob violence Marius - made a name for himself as a general - elected consul for five years – “new man” at the end of the 2 nd century B.C. - not technically allowed to be consul for that long – unusual – only allowed once every ten years by law - great military skill – defeats “German” tribes - reforms the army – recruits soldiers without property – to serve in the army, there was a land requirement - tries to secure land for veteran soldiers – senatorial resistance – expectation of a reward for service - became involved with political allies with similar goals - rise of Sulla – rival of Marius Sulla - army – kingdom of Pontus - Marius moves to gain command – therefore takes command from Sulla - most momentous event – Sulla vs. Marius - Sulla turns the army around and takes Rome – attacks his own people and country – civil warfare - Roman army acts out of loyalty to a single general, and not the state - Sulla as the cause of civil warfare - marches on Rome to get his command back – goes back out – manages to take command from Sulla - much civil warfare – goes back and forth - Sulla finally gets command back – many political killings - Sulla becomes dictator 82-78 B.C. - idea of “bringing order to chaos” - modification of the senate, attempt to give more power back to the senatorial class – more strict, conservative system - then retires and allows the political system to continue as a republic Pompey and Crassus - Pompey gains military success from fighting the pirates – cleared the seas or the tribal people who went about looting and preying upon ships – pirates often kidnapped prominent leaders for ransom - no coast guard or navy at the time - Crassus – enormously wealthy – supresses the slave revolt led by Spartacus in 73 B.C. - Crassus also was an active politician and sometimes an active general - non-Roman slave Spartacus – gladiator who revolts and convinces slaves to run away – creates a runaway slave army/mob - Romans have trouble containing/defeating the slave army - Crassus leads the Roman forces that defeat part of the slave forces - 70 B.C. – Pompey and Crassus as co-consuls - counter pro-senate reforms against Sulla - 60s B.C. – Pompey’s spectacular military victories in the East – Syria, etc. - Pompey named “Magnus” – “the Great” – becomes the most popular Roman in the Roman state at the time - Cicero – orator and politician – articulate, persuasive speaker, also a defense lawyer – very successful and gained many friends – not too militarily based - very good at making speeches against opponents – example of Clodia - “new man” – equestrian - Cicero as “new man” consul in 63 B.C. – becomes an ally of Pompey - Pompey is resisted by the senate – on land for military veterans - despite his military success, the senate is resistant – did not like the large amount
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