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Lecture 15

CLA160 Lecture 15 Notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Johnathon Burgess

CLA160 Lecture 15 Notes Augustan Period – Key Themes - different views of Augustus, including his own - names and terms for Augustus - transition from Republic to Empire - Augustan culture – ideology, patronage, “propaganda”, history, architecture, art, poetry Octavius, Octavian, Augustus - real name Octavius - adopted by Julius Caesar in his will as his heir – grand-nephew but becomes the legal son of Julius Caesar - with adoption – name changes to Octavian – legally becomes Octavian Julius Caesar because he takes on the name of his adopter - powerful player in the political vacuum – with republicans/assassinators, and Marc Antony - forms “Second Triumvirate” with Marc Antony - in 31 B.C. – Mark Antony and Cleopatra lose the naval battle at Actium - called Augustus as honorific name - essentially becomes the first emperor - change of name – Octavian becomes “Augustus” - politics – wanted to restore the republic - took time for Julius Caesar to chase own the Republican forces to defeat Pompey - likewise with Octavian and Marc Antony to defeat Brutus and Cassius - no one takes Octavian seriously Mark Antony - tribune in the late 50s B.C. - name Marcus Antonius - extended career in Gaul - emerges as leader of the Caesarian faction after Julius Caesar’s death - around 44/43 B.C. – “new ruler” was likely to be Antony – Brutus and Cassius were having trouble - eventually joins forces with Octavian – after minor clashing – create the Second Triumvirate together - loose alliance formed with Octavian – succeed in defeating Republican forces - loose alliance as co-rulers – Octavian and Mark Antony – Octavian in West, Antony in East - alliance formed between Antony and Egypt - civil warfare emerges and Antony loses in 31 B.C. – commits suicide with Cleopatra 20s B.C. - honorific name – “Augustus” – Octavian - quasi-religious - not a political term Cicero at the End - letter 43 B.C. – praises Brutus on killing the “pest” Caesar - condemns Antony as “corrupt” - showed much public bravery in the final years of his life - series of speeches in the senate that warned about Marc Antony - “Phillipics” attack on Antony - some versions survive of his speeches – great rhetoric - backs “young Caesar” – Octavian – does not take him seriously however - perhaps an attempt to use him to further his own career – perhaps he thought he could use Octavian as a figurehead - however – Octavian makes a deal with Marc Antony – part of the deal was the they would kill off each other’s enemies – “proscriptions” - therefore, Cicero is killed in “proscriptions” – after the formation of the “second triumvirate” - head and hands were publicly displayed - civil/political assassinations during “proscriptions” “Deeds” of Augustus - temple of Augustus – Ankara – deeds of Augustus - composed and distributed a history of himself – some of it is on the ruins at the temple of Ankara - “deeds” of Augustus – gives his story - quote: “In my nineteenth year, on my own initiative and at my own expense, I raised an army with which I set free the state, which was oppressed by the domination of a faction…” - idea of “on my own initiative and at my own expense” is to show that no state money was used to set the revolution in motion – attempt to emphasize the greatness of Augustus that he used his own finances - irony of “set free the state” – speaking of Brutus and Cassius – flips the truth through rhetoric – because he becomes a virtual tyrant once he declares himself as emperor - quote: “…I drove the men who slaughtered my father into exile with legal order, punishing their crime, and afterwards, when they waged war on the state, I conquered them…” - idea that is was perhaps personal vengeance but it was all legal - conquered – civil warfare when republicans “waged war on the state” - 20s B.C. – “restoration” of the Republic - quote: “…after putting out the civil war, having obtained all things by universal consent, I handed over the state from my power to the dominion of the senate and Roman people. And for this merit of mine, by a senate decree, I was called Augustus” - goes on about the restoration of the republic – beginnings of his name “Augustus” - other names – “imperator” – used on generals with political authority to lead the Roman army – more an honorific title or a nickname - name “Caesar” – principal among the senators – first among the leaders - also called “princeps” - vague names – acts as if he restores the republic – therefore not legal, but honorific terms to describe him - sources of authority – explains his restoration of the Republic and given power - names the number of times he was consul and his special provincial and tribune powers - consulships, special provincial powers, tribune powers - unusual that he had tribune powers for multiple years, etc. - when his deeds were written in 14 A.D. – had tribunician power for 37 years View of Tacitus on Augustus st nd - Tacitus – late 1 century A.D. to early 2 century A.D. - one of the most successful historians in the ancient world - very sardonic and negative – likely because he lived under the rule of a “bad” emperor – the emperor Domician – explains his negative attitudes of the emperors - often suspicious and critical of the motives and methods of emperors - notes Sulla, Pompey, Crassus, Caesar, Mark Antony – up to Augustus - mini-history of the late republic - very cynical about the motives of Augustus - quote: “Augustus won over the soldiers with gifts, the populace with cheap corn, and all them with the sweets of repose, and so grew greater by degrees, while he concentrated in himself the functions of the Senate, the magistrates, and the laws” - fear of gaining loyalty through bribes - use of “sweets of repose” – negative view on the end of civil warfare - idea of Augustus bringing about peace and maintaining it - says that men were won over by this peace – almost as if it was a kind of bribe - claim of Augustus was that he was strengthening the empire - quote by Augustus on the empire – idea of a benevolent saviour - quote: “I often waged war, civil and foreign, on the earth and sea, in the whole wide world, and as victor I spared all citizens who sou
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