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Lecture 17

CLA160 Lecture 17 Notes

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Johnathon Burgess

CLA160 Lecture 17 Notes Pompeii - evidence of Pompeii – preserved through ask and lava in the eruption of Vesuvius - interesting because it is not Rome proper - letter from Pliny the Younger to Tacitus – wrote his account from memory as an adult - Younger Pliny lived close by – his uncle Pliny the Elder died when he went to close to the eruption – likely had complications from asthma - Pompeii preserves temple worship, mystery cults, and worship of the emperor - eruption of Vesuvius also destroyed other cities, not just Pompeii - Vesuvius is the only active volcano in the entire European continent - Pompeii – town south of Vesuvius, near the Bay of Naples Bay of Naples – Overview - Pithekoussai – island of Ischia – earliest Greek colony, “Nestor’s cup” - Cumae – first mainland Greek colony – later becomes Oscan, Roman - Lake Avernus – Aeneas enters the underworld here – near Cumae - Puteoli – originally a Greek town, later becomes Roman – bust commercial port – Paul stopped here for a week on his way to Rome - Baiae – notorious seaside resort for wealthy Romans – Cicero derides Clodia for going there and reports Caesar visited – Caligula builds a pontoon bridge in 37 A.D. to ride a horse “across the Bay of Baiae” - Capri – Tiberius retires here for the last ten years of his reign, leaving Rome in the hands of Sejanus - Misenum – primary Roman naval base, Pliny the Elder set sail from here on his last rescue mission - Pompeii – coastline likely closer to the Bay of Naples than it is today - Herculaneum – also destroyed by Vesuvius Bay of Naples - Pithekoussai • example of new Greek alphabet through “Nestor’s cup” - Cumae and Lake Avernus • Cumae later became Oscan – took over at one point • eventually became Roman • Lake Avernus – extinct volcano • Campi Phlegraei – “burning fields” – name of the entire area in reference to the volcanic activity • some remains of the early Greek settlements - Puteoli • “stinky-town” – because of the nearby extinct volcano Solfatara that emitted gaseous smells • Latin putere – “to stink” - Baiae • Romans went there in the summer to escape the heat and noise of Rome • ruins can be seen today underwater off the coast • in a letter of Cicero about Caesar – description of being a host to Caesar – reports that he had been around the Bay of Naples – went to Baiae to relax • anecdotes of Cicero tell much about Baiae • letter Pro Caelio, “For Caelius” – speaks about the typical associations with Baiae • quote: “The accusers, for their part, speak only of orgies, love affairs, adultery, Baiae, beach parties, banquets, revels, singing, concerts, boat rides, and at the same time they give us to understand that there is nothing they say without your approval. And you, gripped by some madness—were willing to have all this mud dragged into the Forum in front of the jury” • Caligula rides a horse across the Bay of Baiae – builds a bridge to cross it because of a comment by an astrologer • astrologer said to Augustus that Gaius Caligula had no change of being emperor – Caligula to “prove wrong” the astrologer • quote: “Gaius had no more change of becoming Emperor than of galloping to and fro over the gulf of Baiae” - Capri • island off the southern point of the Bay of Naples • Tiberius retreats here while still emperor • Sejanus – head of the Praetorian Guard • beautiful area • Tacitus comments on Tiberius’ wanton acts in Capri - Misenum • Pliny the Elder travels there to record about Vesuvius – fleet commander as well Pompeii - literary sources – Pliny to Tacitus on the death of his uncle – eruption in 79 A.D. - archaeological remains of the Vesuvius eruption – material culture, etc. - likely the number of people actually caught in the eruption was very low compared to the actual population of Pompeii - inscriptions remain – some are formal inscriptions - historical references to Pompeii – Tacitus on the riot in the Coliseum in Pompeii - about one-third of the city is still under rock and ash Pompeii through Time - ruins as a “snapshot” of Roman history - not truly “frozen in time” as is normally referred to - Romans, Latins, Greeks, Etruscans, Gauls, Italics, Oscans - Latin – closely related native people to Romans - Italic – native peoples – tribes
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