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Lecture 18

CLA160 Lecture 18 Notes

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Johnathon Burgess

CLA160 Lecture 18 Notes Empire Society and Culture - people and places - social classes – not just patricians - houses – private homes, apartments - public buildings – aqueducts, amphitheatres (gladiators), roads – use of concrete with soldiers as the building crew - prose literature of the Empire – travel, people, Greek literature in the Empire – in the 1 , 2 , and 3 centuries A.D. there were Greeks in the Italian peninsula - focus on plebians, freedmen, slaves, and women – Roman society as patriarchal – women having economic, if not political, privileges - ability of women to hold property – in practice but not in theory - use of Greek comedy in Roman comedy – mix of Greek and Roman culture - depiction in comedy of the often smart/clever slave – 1960s movie A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum has a fictional basis in Roman comedy - use of the movie Spartacus to depict the slave with no rights – banding together of gladiators and slaves to gain rights - example of plasters from Pompeii – look at buildings in which people lived - use of the ruins in Pompeii – forums – temples situated in the area, as well as amphitheatres Pompeii - building site map of Pompeii based on excavations - distinctions between “old” Ostian cities and newer ones - old site – streets were not straight - later additions – later Roman Empire – straighter roads, rectangular houses – represents Roman style of building - planning, organization before creating new buildings - idea of city blocks - engineers, planning skills – building straight roads – organizational level with almost mathematical precision - ideal Roman road as straight and flat Domus - domus – literally means “house” – the Roman house - atrium – has a hole in the center – akin to a modern-day living room – used for entertaining guests - stores open out to the street – houses right on the streets - garden at the back - kitchen at the back corner of the building - courtyard atrium as a “backyard”, often with greenery - dinner parties held in tricinium which had couches on which to recline while eating - tricinium – literally means “couch place” because the room typically had three couches - space became more private toward the back of the domus - sophisticated arrangement of rooms - example of the House of Pansa in Pompeii • shops facing the street, either rented out of used by slaves to provide direct revenue for the household • separate homes, perhaps for servants or rented out • perhaps office, reception room, etc. • very small kitchen by modern standards - examples of private life – House of the Faun • large atrium • look at bedrooms and dining room • named “Faun” due to the sculpture artifact found • inscription at the entrance – “have”, “ave” – meaning “greetings”, “be well”, “hail”, “farewell” • comparison of inscriptions of Catullus, Suetonius, and Dio - quote by Catullus: “receive these sad gifts, offerings to the dead, soaked deeply with a brother’s tears, and for eternity, brother: ‘Hail and Farewell!’” - “Hail and Farewell” – ave et valete - quote by Suetonius and Dio on an occasion of mock ship battle soldiers hailing the emperor: “Ave Caesar! Morituri te salutant!” – “Hail Caesar! Those who are about to die salute you!” - “Hail Caesar” – used by gladiators before battle – perhaps not correct – also can occur on a play of a mock ship performed by gladiators – flood an amphitheatre or go to a harbour - mosaics in the House of the Faun – floor mosaic constructed in the image of Alexander the Great vanquishing Darius, the king of the Persian Empire - floor mosaic as part of the ruins of Pompeii around 79 A.D. – likely based on an earlier Greek painting – likely a wall fresco - heavy influence of Greek art of Roman art – often an imitation of Greek works - mosaic in another house in Pompeii – floor mosaic of a dog chained up – wording, “beware of the dog” - mosaic from Rome – shows the artistry of mosaics – how the preservation of art can give a “picture” of everyday life – image of a fish - wall fresco – from the “Villa of Livia” – Livia, wife of Augustus – at Rome – naturalistic paintings originally from a dining room - wall paintings in Pompeii – not many wall paintings survive – Pompeii as the best source - many styles of wall paintings – rich colours, beautiful designs – imagery, mythological scenes - fresco of the Trojan horse in Pompeii – Romans had images of Greek myth in homes - facets of everyday life in Pompeii is shown in frescos – example of thoughtful female with stylus, gambling men with dice, sexually explicit imagery of a phallus or sexual acts - brothels in the ruins of Pompeii – archaeology has worked out the uses of the different rooms – graffiti has been found on the walls - streets have been well preserved in Pompeii - some streets appear to be designed to allow people to cross the street as well as avoid the dirt/muck - some streets have ruts – perhaps to collect dirt or to allow carts to go along securely – to keep the axel in line - shops in Pompeii – counters and containers built into them – unknown, for the most part, what exactly was sold at the shops - waterworks – fountains on the streets - public water to drink and wash with – to a certain degree - ancient fountains – water
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