40% identified term and significance
60% 2 short essay questions
whether women in Greek world secluded… at home with no voice or rights where public space was
dominated by men…. misogynist? social relationship with men….
but on the other side…this is not the case.
answer is middle ground. actually, we know women were doing a bunch of things… thus what were they
exactly were doing? what does this mean?
suppose misogyny… why is it that modern scholars thought Greek men were marginalized and
there are notable examples. such as Semonides 7 (slide) different type of women as particular types of
animal. all but one in negative term. this was meant to be humorous and entertaining. not intended as
however, Aristotle- historia animalium (slide)
very influential passage. there are gender role stereotypes represented (even in our society as well)
Xen. Oeconomicus (slide): dialogue between Socrates and Ischomachos* he is admired by Socrates' well
run household. he outlines details of different steps and part was way he trained his wife to run the
household. one of the key passages of talking about indoor and outdoor division of men and women.
interested in categorizing animal variations, socrtes and isch interested in more holistic-- idea of yoke…
dualism in humanity, the male and female operate inside of each other. but they are different. a slightly
positive sense than sex in hierarchy. there is emphasis on differences (inside vs. outside)
there are various rebuttals to the old view that 'this represented reality for every greek men and
women' viewing Xen as normal for everyone.
historiographical argument: because modern scholar was male dominated with low value of women in
historical records. this was due to the early scholar's education in classics…. written by men interested
to political dominant men. but this is not just mean women follow, it also include women, children,
elderly. all disappear.. thus its elites view.
one solution was change historical method. women represented in narrow ways but they are still
present. and other advantage is opening up other bodies of evidence. material epigraphic and visual
other types of evidence brining in new different discussion of women and their activities
GENDER ROLES= CONSTRUCTED**
(slide of gisela bok) in professional track, needed certain number of women and within scholarly
discipline, equal emphasis…. perceived gender as socio-cultural relationship. argue new way of looking
at women in the antiquity. women neglected… and now we should find them in history and study it and
equation will balance out. suggested look at gender as a relation* it is something continually negotiated.
subject to fluctuation. don’t look at objects but interaction and relation in the past. level of individual
and can be done at the level of groups as well. looking at greek women, they did have things to say.
relationship and negotiating and what it meant to be women.
thus, some women had things to say. ex. sappho lived in 7th C (slides) she came from notable family
exiled to sicily. her songs and poems talk about friendship, motherhood, and joys and sorrows
associated with those things. ex. friend getting married… sappho says that when her friend got married, she was sad. saphho also writes about her daughter Cleis (slide) not only do we have sense of
motherly relationship with daughter… but a bit information of trade on Lesbos.
Corinna boetia. coral songs at a city at boetia. (slide)
Erinna 4th C poetess (slide)
gender as construction in these poems, we see that its created by relationships where women had
relationship with families, outside family…. thus family shapes men and women… and friendship shapes
who you are on how you act. you feel. community at large…. sense of contributing to political process
can affect who you are and how you feel as a men and women.
it’s a complex construction. (slide) Krater.
basically, episode where krater depicts agamemnon returning home and killed by Klemnestra…
reverse, Aigisthos by Klemnestra…. Orestes.. (just look at the slide too tired to write)
gender is overlappnig with other categories ppl's appearance and objects using and holding and
ethnic affiliation with cloth and subjects…
Klemnestra, the one thing allowed her to get agamemnon to be killed is that she wore robe and put it
over him like a net* its transparent… the net does a number of things… weaving* women's work
entraped by object that was made by women and nets used for hunting… turned into a beast… net=
women's wilds and deceptions. qualities that aristotle described earlier.
on the other side, in the chair, he is sitting not standing. thus, not dominant in the portrayal. curled
beard and also dropped a barbatos. (lyre-associated with asian communities along asia minor) oreitnal
musical instrument… thus his clothing and beard… racial slur tyrannical, eastern, luxury.
in contrast Orestes is portrayed as warrior, youthful, a good greek men and a good greek citizen. what's
displayed is gender narrative. political and ethnic narrative… all tied up together. manliness, greekness
and free status are part of the package* submissive, being tyrannical, feminine, luxurious, eastern are
the other side of the scale*
when thinking about question of AGENCY, going further then looking at historical record what is women
presented? why is it interesting that women is presented. this is question of agency. what is women
doing? so we are not just amass passive objectified greek history but their activities and doing the
acitivies and ability to make decision, affect own circumstances and affect situations around them.
Herodotus had a lot to say about women who had active interests (who are from states which are
operating under kings or tyrants, and asia) at the start of history, he begins with episode (mainly to say
just how weird eastern kings are… women are powerful) (slide) king of lydia- Candaules in love with own
wife.. fairest women in the world. he was obsessed of getting his right hand made Gyges to agree with
Candaules. thus Candaules to hide in his bedroom as he was coming in and to see her when he undress.
Queen next day, tells gyges that either he die or kill his husband. gyges… kills king and takes the throne
and queen stays with slightly less crazy/sensible husband.
he goes on talking about number different ocasions of women act with high agency.
- Tomyris of Massagetai northern tribe…Darius
- Artemisia of Halicarnassus ruler/ queen appears on several occasion not only giving martial advice
but also leads naval battle
- pheretime wife of battos of cyrene
- daughter of otanes persian satrap
Gorgo daughter of king Cleomenes… influenced by fathers' policy, or decision of their own right.
the idea that women were active has a good precedent in the text in herodotus.
when talking about agency, especially political agency of women… women in top strata of society
because its top of society to have power to make political actions (tyranny and oligarchy)
ex. Fornara 30.
there are polis involvements ex. Athens both parents had to be citizen for child to be citizen. indicates
that women were perceived as being able to hold citizenship. where in other states… men were only
citizens… in athens… even if they didn’t vote or attend, they were still citizens.
we also see women act in public such as cult, festivals, and important to know that they happened in
public in presence of men. ex. phasiphora.. is not the only time women celebrated in public.
*presentation* Fornara 96
- aspasia: wise and offer advice, influence in her community. states that Pericles took action to