Feb. 27, 2013
ubiquitous Athens? Athenian identity?
- foundation myths:
- oligarchy, tyranny, and democracy
- memory and forgetting
- sacrifice and the Persian wars
- commemorations and Peloponnesian wars
- oligarchs and the oath to forget
- Homer (slide) Athenians were attached to an idea that they were AUTOCHTHONY think that they had
sprung from the very rocks of Athens. always been there who never moved in, they were always been
there. This went for all athenian citizens and represented earlier kings and heroes. Posiedon, earth
shaker. Greek verb Erechthe (break and shake). thought to be one of ancestor of all athenians along ith
another cythonoic figure CECROPS, a mythical king of athens. regarded as the erecteus of people. no
parent born of the earth and suually described as half man half snake creature. same manner as a giant.
set basic insituttion of civilization of athens. introduced monogomy (one wife), writing, funerals, and
other rituals. the basic practice made athens civilized. idea of early heroes, it’s the ground work and
sense of Authcthonoy. their kings had always been there. simply sprung out of the earth.
rehtoric and performance, Josiah ober wrote mass and elite in classicla thens. its an influential study
about interaction between elite and masses as main dynamic in athenian public life. this is in solon's
description of Kaakoi (bad man) and agathoi (good man) in solon's poetry. basis in distinguishing classes
and determin a good political leader. not everyone had an inate qualities of a political leader. Athenian
public/political life was this constant dialogue between elites and leader/ demos and achieved by the
elite being performaers and mass being audience. both performer elites nad massaudience) were
arbitors of politcal value. both judge what was political good. the elite did this by choosing particular
persona. through art of speech making. they of coruse chose policies and decree and legal deicsion
wanted to present to the demos. shaped political life AUDIENCE AND PERFOMERS. judge to have final
say whether to vote.. how convincing were they? centrality of the elite performance and mass audience
at athen plays out in the 3 forms of government characterized archaic/classic between tyranny,
oligarchy, democracy* RHETORS.
Plut, Solon 29/30 (slide) ppl of Athens divided while solon was away. after he made his law. reference to
Megacles was the aristocratic lcan which early in 7th C killed … Cylon a strong theme of public
performance. serious political change in grand drama with the crowd looking on and watching as these
autocrats sorts them out.
Herodotus also mentions this (5.71--slide) this is interesting but weaves together events taking place
through the 6th C all at the same time. performance and cylon clinging to statue where leaders of
NAUKraria decide to kill them and for some reason the clan being cursed and exiled from the city. only
to return 2 generation after.. but fled again. further to this theme, in terms of performance, tyranny vs.
oligarchy, this is the end of pisistratus. blood and gore… end of the tyrant slayers. this is interesting because this was one performance which was commemorated and re-enacted of the tyrant's slayers and
also drinking songs sung at symposia…acted out and mimicked statue.
fornara 39 gives text to drinking songs. when historian gone and looked at the actual politics, tyrant
slaying wasn’t a big deal because tyrany lasted afterwards and end came with different means. when
thinking about public nature and deed, its this fast pace event. happen really quick and aristocrats did
things in front of the demos** at a festival where lots of ppl wwere watching, a theatrcality that really
worked for the athenians in terms of how they thought about political leader and what they chose to
remember. this pattern plays out**
there is an interesting text called Old Oligarch (aristotle politeia) thisi s called old oligarch point of view
someone who is not a democratic at heart but more of oligarch. makes criticism of the democracy.
fornara 107. it talks about Athenian attitude towards oligarchy/tyrany/ democracy.
how well preservve regime which rest of greeks criticize them. question here is not whetehr democracy
oligarchy was effect but ideology** question in greek mind was what was the best rule? you can make
iether form and work successfully. it was ideological. any pattern of state worked well. we see attitude
towards tyrants wasn’t bad. oligarchy as well (coritnh) not as so, democarcy waasnt the end of all state.
any of the 3 form wasa possibiltiy at athens. ppl's choice was to use ideological affliation.
history of athen is history of tension between roots. it help explain why foundation myth was so central
in athenian imagination. they were continually reformulating their nature of state and continually
adjusting adminitration, changing law and recycling and reformulating of old myth to legitimate new
political set up and regime. persistent of the alcdodine clan positioned in old oligarchic network clan
(intermarriage…) herodotus outlines these connection, very prominent even twhen they are cursed.
they are under suspicion. yet son of the family sets up basis for athenian democracy. named after his
grandfather (herodotus slide) guided as original author yet, comes oligarhic contest connection to the
tyrant. herodotus' description how he set up the new organization of athneina state. Cylspelsis… ainto 8
new tribes of corinths. cleidhtnes did the same thing I n508 at athnes. old ionina tribes named after 4
sons of ions.. galeon, aegicores, argades, and hoples. invented a new tribal system. chose 10 heroes to
give their names to 10 new aritificial tribe. he chose heroes connection to ahtnes in attic, except for
ajax… (aias) stranger neighbor and allie. basically cleisthenes reform old attic heroes to serve as
founders of athenian state. they are the EPONYMOUSHEROS
the cleisthenic PHYLAI* - slide lists names
official order that tribe were listed on all official documents and inscriptions in Athens.
eajax- Trojan hero from salamis claimed by Athens later one and Aigeus( father of hero thesueus) what
about the others? we know about some of them from other myths but others are obscure.
Paus 1.5.1. (slide) Pandion was hero from Megara. mythical king of Athens. few debates which pandion
he was but was associated with megara. Leos, son of orpheus. set to have when athen suffered famine
sacrificed 3 daughters as human sacrifice when Delphic oracle would get famine when human sacrifice
was performed. as honor, sanctuary set up. acamous son of thesus. oinious son of pandion (prince).
connection to megara. what's going on with the heroes? some of kings, random legnedary figures
associated with various characters. few things pull them togetehr help see cleithenes choice.
athenina territorial claim (salamis-ajax) place of interest to the athenians. we see this later on as persian
war is on hold. Hippothoon (eleusus) cult center in attica and very improtant to athenian ontrol of
Eleusus. pandion, antiochus, all asocciated to MEgara. laid between attica and corinth. its important
area which athenians wre interested in. athenians had a hcoice where to expand territory and megara
was a good choice. you can see the choice that early one before