Class Notes (836,631)
Canada (509,866)
Classics (1,714)
CLA160H1 (318)

cla203 lecture 2.docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

Jonathan Tracy

-different variations of answers to the question of the ‘theory of everything’ -Monism vs. Dualism/Pluralism -every major philosopher has a different answer and reasons why they came to this answer -observing the world and forming an intelligent theory from this observation -Pre-Socratic achievement was the scientific method -also were extremely critical of different peers’ theories as well as those of their predecessors -Greece was a very free and open society -had freedom to inquire about things -didn’t have to compete with the same hierarchry as other societies -increased social mobility in Greece; able to make a name for yourself based on merit -upsetting of accepted social norms therefore led to questioning of thes norms and others -‘celebrity’ philosophizing was a way to move up in society by succeeding in competitive debate The Open Society: -vigorous debate over public policies, public-speaking as skill was taught -good speakers could gain more influence over decision-making in polis -Thales was involved in debate over the political organization for the whole of Ionia, saying the Ionians should have own political council to govern themselves -there was no institutionalized priestly cast that governed policu (as there was with Babylonians) -no feudal system (as in Persia) that fixed parameters, limit scope of inquiry into natural and other phenomena -no one in Greece claimed the “divine right to rule” as in other societies of the time Why Ionia -the Ionians were exposed to the world empire of the Persians; get a sense of just how diverse the world really is with the number of different peoples under Persian rule -Herodotus was fascinated by the Near Eastern world -first interest in Geography comes from exposure to the Near Eastern world and the massive empires they had -Greeks brought into contact with the Nile (especially those in Miletus) which has lots of wildlife not native to Greece Herodotus: what is truly universal is the law of nature, customs differ between cultures Thales: th -early 6 c. BCE -father of Western science -what we know of his ideas probably come from his pupil Anaximander -theory of the Nile flood -took interest in practical applications of scientific observation (celestial navigation, should be using Ursa Minor for navigation not Major) -said to have predicted eclipse, perhaps from Babylonian charts -Oxyrynchus Papyri (not in Thales’ own words though but theory laid out on why eclipses happen as right) -is said to have helped Croesus’ army cross a river that had no bridge diverting the river behind the army -first to develop a ‘theory of everything’ -first substance that everything comes from was Water -said that the earth floated on water (problem: what holds up the water then, this sparked much debate between philosophers) -Aristotle: could’ve got this theory from observing that everything derives it nourishment from moisture -from water all things come and into water all things decompose (Placita 1.3.1) -earth rests on water and stays where it is because it is buoyant like wood -connection to Near Eastern traditions -Egyptians: earth=flat dish resting on water -Babylonians: the original deities Apsu and Tiamat are both forms of water (sweet and bitter) -Thales’ leaves gods out of his account of cosmic structure; didn’t need gods to explain how universe works -Seneca: believes Thales’ to be silly, believes in Aristotle’s theory of earthquakes as being celestial flatulence Anaximander: -draws up first map of whole, shows influence great Near Eastern empires -composed treatise on nature Peri Phuseos -father of scientific literature -we do not have copy of treatise complete and intact -does question
More Less

Related notes for CLA160H1

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.