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Civil War Rome; Lecture.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
Johnathon Burgess

Civil War in the last 100 years of the Republic Key Theme: Land and Soldiers Examples: Gracchi, Marius, Sulla, Pompey, Crassus, Caesar Cicero on Caesar Julius Ceasar Brilliant general leader, who fixed the broken Republic, only to be treacherously murdered? Or vain, power-mad, selfish murderer, justly assassinated for assuming monarchal powers? Or just a “great man” of history? Decline of the Republic: Major Issues Land: Patricians (wealthy elite) (wealth was based on their landholding, they were typically not mercantile agents) they scoop up “public land” Land and Soldiers: Property needed to enlist in army, veterans want land upon retirement. To qualify to serve as a soldier, you need to own land; hence the peasant- solider was endangered. Soldiers and Generals: Armies more loyal to leader than country. Persistent problem with soldiers identifying with their army more than their country. This allows for the possibility for civil warfare to arise. Tribune Power: Full use of tribuneship bestowal of favors to masses= potential clients. Senatorial class often suspected tributes to use their power to get their way unfairly. Gracchis uses the tribute used it to force through reforms and decisions he thinks should occur. Italian Allies: Want more political rights (full citizenship). The senatorial class was resisting this. Equestrians vs. Patricians “publicani” issues Violence Assassinations, mobs, civil warfare, proscriptions 133: Tiberius Gracchus assassinated -Decade later so is Gaius Grachus 80s: Civil War: Sulla & Marius -Sulla becomes dictator 70’s and 60’s: Rivalry of Pompey the Great, Crassus 60: First triumvirate’: Triberius Gracchus Tribune 133 Issue: Granting of public land to small farmers/potential soldiers Problems: Patrician landholders resist -So T.G uses shortcuts: senate not consulted; fellow tribune deposed *Senate fears TG’s patronage power will grow Tiberius killed in mob violence Gaius Gracchus Tribune ten years after brother New reforms: Grain given out, or prices fixed Equestrian publicani control extortion court (law court designed to prosecute the patrician class if they had serve
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