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Lecture on November 2nd

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Johnathon Burgess

CLA160 - Lecture on November 2nd 2 problems: to do with land - soldiers had to own land: many didnt, numbers of soliders lessened - roman soliders expected to retire and be rewarded with land Early Roman Literature - much has been lost Epic: - 3rd c. BCE early attempts in native meter - early translation of Odyssey Drama; - composed and performed in 2nd c BC - we only have fragments existing though - early tragedies lost Roman Comedy - adapation of New Comedy of Menander - proem that explains the plot.. - greek settings, names - everyday, stock characters, colloquial language - very greeK; some seem like just translation of older existing greek comedies (old comedy was about contemp. events and politicans, new comedy (menander) was about contemporary world: stock characters, old men, young lovers, slaves, not political and popular people.) eg. The Misanthrope: knemon the grumpy old man. sostratus the young lover. slave is portrayed as clever. Plautus - roman comedy writer (3rd -2nd century BC) - influences shakespeare - The Pot of Old - one of his comedies - uses stock characters - note: argument over ownership of “it”, a woman (patriarchal nature) Terence - roman comedy writer (2nd c, BCE) - from north africa: freedman - more subtle, humane style - filled with little philosophical bits - explores the human condition Cato- and slave farming - catos farm is a slave farm. he is an absentee landlord. Decline of the Republic: MAJOR ISSUES - LAND: patricians scoop up “public” land - LAND AND SOLDIERS: soldiers needed property to qualify for army, was eventually removed. but veterans wanted land upon retirement. some generals confiscated land to give to soldiers because of this. - SOLDIERS AND GENERAL: armies becoming more loyal to leader than country. basic ingredient of civil warfare. armies dedicated to their solders, begin to think of themselves as citizens of the army, not citizens of rome. - TRIBUNE POWER: full use of tribuneship. bestowal of favors to masses, potential clients. people tried to push reforms, people didn’t like it, but they used their power to pass them anyway.used violence to push opponents out of the way, or intimidate them. different political leaders worrying about who would end up on top, politically, as a result of reform being passed. - tribune made originally in order to be a counter check on the man power, but in time this balance of power (checks and balances) became stalemate. - Tribune is anti-consuls. - - ITALIAN ALLIES: want more rights. full citizens didn’t have to pay taxes, they wanted this too. but a lot of politica
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