CLA160 - Lecture on November 2nd
2 problems: to do with land
- soldiers had to own land: many didnt, numbers of soliders lessened
- roman soliders expected to retire and be rewarded with land
Early Roman Literature - much has been lost
- 3rd c. BCE early attempts in native meter
- early translation of Odyssey
- composed and performed in 2nd c BC
- we only have fragments existing though
- early tragedies lost
- adapation of New Comedy of Menander
- proem that explains the plot..
- greek settings, names
- everyday, stock characters, colloquial language
- very greeK; some seem like just translation of older existing greek comedies
(old comedy was about contemp. events and politicans, new comedy (menander) was
about contemporary world: stock characters, old men, young lovers, slaves, not political
and popular people.) eg. The Misanthrope: knemon the grumpy old man. sostratus the
young lover. slave is portrayed as clever.
Plautus - roman comedy writer
(3rd -2nd century BC)
- influences shakespeare
- The Pot of Old - one of his comedies
- uses stock characters
- note: argument over ownership of “it”, a woman (patriarchal nature)
Terence - roman comedy writer
(2nd c, BCE)
- from north africa: freedman
- more subtle, humane style
- filled with little philosophical bits
- explores the human condition
Cato- and slave farming
- catos farm is a slave farm. he is an absentee landlord. Decline of the Republic: MAJOR ISSUES
- LAND: patricians scoop up “public” land
- LAND AND SOLDIERS: soldiers needed property to qualify for army, was eventually
removed. but veterans wanted land upon retirement. some generals confiscated land to
give to soldiers because of this.
- SOLDIERS AND GENERAL: armies becoming more loyal to leader than country. basic
ingredient of civil warfare. armies dedicated to their solders, begin to think of themselves
as citizens of the army, not citizens of rome.
- TRIBUNE POWER: full use of tribuneship. bestowal of favors to masses, potential
clients. people tried to push reforms, people didn’t like it, but they used their power to
pass them anyway.used violence to push opponents out of the way, or intimidate them.
different political leaders worrying about who would end up on top, politically, as a result
of reform being passed.
- tribune made originally in order to be a counter check on the man power, but in time
this balance of power (checks and balances) became stalemate.
- Tribune is anti-consuls.
- ITALIAN ALLIES: want more rights. full citizens didn’t have to pay taxes, they wanted
this too. but a lot of politica