CLA160- Lecture on October 14th, 2011
The Peloponnesian Wars
- Athens pretty much controlled the Aegean - brilliant at naval warfare
- Spent most money, in response to Persian wars, in building a fleet.
- Athenian Empire. in control of the aegean, many allies on land and on islands.
- Thetes were the “machines”
- Sparta is dominant of the Peloponnesus, southern area. also Macedonia.
- sparta dominated on land.
- had perfected hoplite warfare
- Trireme: Athenians. many oars, shaped to ram into other ships, etc.
- part of naval dominance
431-404 - Peloponnesian Wars (divided into 2 parts by peace, in 421)
- Athenians “win” the first half
- “long wall” policy
- key for the strategy of athens in the first half. relevant to their dominance.
- spartans march their troops to Attica (land around athens), and all the citizens
come into the city, behind the fortifications. spartans destroy land but cant get to
- plague, death of Pericles
- plague due to having so many people in one area
- death made Sparta agree to peace treaty
- plague made people ignore social conventions in a way
- peace for 7 years in 421
- Sparta “wins” second half. (divided by the peace)
Athens protected their city and their harbour.
- need to receive food and goods
- therefore they had long walls running from their city to the harbour.
Athenians lose 2nd half:
- disastrous Sicilian expedition 415-413.
- athens helped sicily.. against Syracuse?
- athens wanted to gain good allies there
- disaster: terribly organized and implemented
- oligarchic take over 410 (group of 400): thetes in fleet resist - Persian empire is still more powerful militarily/economically
- athens and sparta are interested in making deals with persia