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Lecture 5

Week 5 - Iliad - Books 16-24 - Homeric Poetry

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Timothy Perry

CLA 236 Feb. 1 Iliad 16-24 Homeric Poetry Homeric simile Homeric code later books of the Iliad the plight of hector Iliad 18 shield of Achilles Mid Term first hour covering everything up this lecture, Iliad, Hesiod 25 percent, out of 50, two sections 20 marks and commentary 30 marks, short answer based on the poems, testing knowledge what happens, some questions formal aspects, formulas type scene, major historic aspects, actual paper, one line, point form, name, commentary passages taken out of the poems, short sections a few lines, half dozen lines, 5 out of 3, 10 marks, apply things on class relevant Such as the embassies, arming of Agamemnon, oral formula, type scenes Homeric code, parallels, similes, phoenix one and a half, two pages for each double spaced, little bit oral type scene and fits in the story more generally, no summarizing, no summary of the plot, where it fits in the plot, compare parallel passages, don’t need know all the alliances, catalogue, progresses the plot, embassy, heroes don’t need to know all the surrounding figures, major figures on each side, diomedes Similes in the Homeric epic, one object or phenomenon compared to another … aka Ajax attacked, ass being beaten by a boy beaten by sticks  Similes of battle scenes break up boring repeating parts, battle lines, compared line measure for timbers two straight lines  Iliad full of comparisons all through the poem best known features of Homeric poetry common in the Iliad than the odyssey, more comparisons, complex ways  The length of the similes  Multiple points of comparison often implied  Three categories according to subject matter  Natural phenomena  Hunting, herding  Human technology  Similes sometimes found in groups  May function for an epithet, i.e. Hero like a god … Achilles like a god  Stirred men compared to fawns short simile  Sometimes similes are much more extended 6 – 10 lines more complicated longer  Heroes compared to lions, boars, wild animals, the phrases is rarely repeated exactly  Slightly different manner  Even the long similes only one specific point, ex. Iliad 8, L641-649 campfires watch fires compared to the skies the number of fires and the number of stars in the skies  Other things being compared for instance, the high spirits of the Trojans, Sheppard was exalted by looking at the sky, implied not made apparent  Hector the greatest of the Trojan warriors, the moon, stars and the moon is bigger glory aka hector, not made explicit  Iliad 24, 560 568 part of the descripition of priams unexpected hut in Achilles body of the son hector compared to a murderer who turns up unexpectedly to a rich man , Achilles is the rich man, priam is the murder  Illiad 17 758, Melauns trying to find nestor compared to the eagle, melanuas, looking like an eagle, like a hare, two points suggest antilouchus stalking him like prey, the are the same side, actually seeing that he is still alive and doing well in battle no hostile intent at this point simile comparison doesn’t seem to work, careless what simile he chose Subject matters of similes 130 – 140 long similes  Storms lightening natural,  Hunting and herding, aggression of a wild animal, lots of them a herd being attacked by a lion, the herdsmen trying to fend of a lion or human hunters trying to track down and animal  Human technology, for instance similes carpentry, cut timber from ships straight line in the battle lines, agricultural scenes, weaving, Ajax beating up like an ass from boys, agriculture All three the aspect of nature, used rather differently especially third categories,  1st is hostile, floods, storms, human life, nd  2 animals dangerous natural world outside human culture aggressive dangerous has to be confronted for instance fight off hunters, wild beasts  3 present positive view of nature human kind working productively tame nature thought agriculture rd Many similes provide contrast peaceful and warfare, in particular 3 one, not all, intense violence of war first 2 of the similes  Stimulate audiences imagination, scene more vivid, the audience to relate to  Achieved experiences contemporary everyday life, agriculture, natural phenomena, relate too rather than war normal people would not relate too Grouping of similes  6 or 7 in a row, importance moment, event, plot, particular important moment pay attention to  Different sorts of grouping  Two similes two armies, Achaean compared to one thing, Trojan compared to another book 4,  Trojans sheep in an enclosure, Achaean waves brush on shore  Highlight similarities and differences, both enormous size, wave after wave, thousands of sheep  Differences, Achaeans order, Trojans chaotic  Poet sympathetic , no bad guys, sometimes favor Achaean side over the Trojans, waves crashing, dignified, compared to flock of sheep, not good, waiting to be milked  Describes two warriors, to battle each other duels, one each of the two warriors  Two similes describe the same thing, object, for instance, Achilles book 20 battle, human fire raging on, setting ablaze timber chaos fire, compared to a wild fire like the mountains, thundering ox, suddenly compared to an ox completely different , natural phenomenon and then agriculture scene different aspects of Achilles, fire unpredictable, the ox expresses violence contrast peaceful vigorous , violent action contrast, Sequence of similes  Not common, few occasions reserved moments, catalogue of the ships in Iliad 2, composition of the poem  7 similes one after the other, Achaean troops, 7 separate things, wild fire, flock of birds, flies, herds, flowers, Agamemnon gods, a bull leaving the heard L539  Great variety different aspects of the army,  Effect is cinematic particular zoom in the army, broad shot, leader of the army, surrounded by his troops  Focus tighter and tighter, fire, birds, great numbers now divided, flies around a bucket more focused, herds divided up individual leaders, Agamemnon and the bull is the leader combined effect zoom in broad army to Agamemnon Iliad 16 Death of Patroclus  Constantly delayed to build suspense  Foreshadows the death of Achilles  Patroclus killed wearing Achilles armor,  11 suggests this would happen, 4 books to build suspense  Big turning point, big arista, well on the battlefield, and everyone against him, comes to an end  Hector kills him, helped by the god Apollo  Gets Achilles back in the fighting, avenge his friend  Being killed at the end, build suspense  Audience knows that Patroclus is going to die  Not sure how or when, poet delays the death, delay him in battle, a catalogue, he arms Achilles, list of various leaders of myrmidon, Achilles tribe  The fate of Sarpedon is killed, patroclus kills him, in detail, his body, son of Zeus, body treated well delay the action building the suspense  The storming the walls of troy sets up battle sarpedon , both sides want to claim, acheans strip armor, Trojans want to bury him  Foreshadow he will die, the poet almost hector and patroclus together and fight  Suddenly hector retreats eventually patroclus storms the wall, ordered by Achilles not to storm troy  Number of examples extends scope of the timeline, tells few days Trojan war, expands beyond that before and after of the war, enslavement of Andromache , death of patroclus will not be narrative directly at the poem at itself, his death foreshadows Achilles, Iliad doesn’t die not mentioned directly , but in odyssey, armor foreshadow later in the myth  Doesn’t make any effort to hide the plot  Poem free, cant have acheans going home, have to follow the myth, change some of it, versions embassy Achilles, various versions which hero kills who  Patroclus is late versions Illiad 16 leading the myrmidons  Death of Achilles end of the iliad before the end of Trojan war  Major hero killed who is going to claim the corpse Book 18 finds out great friend dies  Runs out to kill hector but cant do this he has no amour, hector strips him as a trophy  Acheans get patrolcus body back  Lamentation in the hut, the body is not present  Whole scene looks forward to Achilles death not narrative not directly  Achilles is the one who had died not patroclus it seems  Hears that he is dead lies down in the dust, lie still, role of a corpse all the others who are present, slave women antilicous is the news giver, act as Achilles is actually d
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