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CLA 310 L09.19

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Susan Dunning

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CLA 310 – R ELGR OMAN W ORLD S. DUNNING 09/19/12 R ELIGION AR OME - Personal belief - Explanatory narrative - Figurehead / founder - Sacrifice (of time, attention, energy, material goods) - Communication with the supernatural - Formation of human ties and identities - Specialists - Traditions and rituals - Addresses questions of what happens after death **Italics = meant something different to the Romans Vocab - Cultus (from colere) - Religio (from religare) - Superstitio (from superstare) - Deus, dea - Numen - Sacer - Sanctus - Cultus (from “to take care of”) o Worship according to a particular type of ritual dedicated to a particular deity o Small, specific kind of group worship o Unique rituals and practices centred around a deity (that may be antisocial) - Religio (from “binding together”) o Obligating the gods o Gives god what they’re due o Practice of contracting with gods o Abstract term regarding what you should do for the gods - Superstitio (“to stand over”) o Things you don’t mean to do for the gods o Doing more than you need to for the gods o Negative connotation  E.g., Christians are superstitious because they are doing more than they have to (i.e., worshipping another god) o Doing rites uncalled for when time is better used somewhere else - Deus / dea o (god(dess)) o Goes all the way back to ancient (early) Roman times o Personalized powers in the supernatural realm o Gendered entities - Numen o General divine power o Reason for (numen theory of) animism - Sacer / sanctus o Sacred, holy o Sacer ~ property of the gods ~ person(s)  If person declared sacer no repercussions for those who kill you (can get sacrificed)  OR in devotio (general sacrificing / devoting self to the chthonic gods along with the enemy for victory)  General’s death taken as a sign that the gods favour your side (Roman) o Sanctus = holy / sacred  Property of the gods ~ objects  E.g., walls of the city o **Don’t use interchangeably** - Outline of Roman History o Regal, (Early / Mid / Late) Republic, Augustan period, (Early / Late) Empire - Regal period overthrown 509 BC - Republic ruled by the Senate, consuls, tribune, etc. who were elected in position (power concentrated in the upper classes) – somewhat democratic o Senate and the people (symbols of the Rep) o Territorial expansion, overseas wars, naval supremacy and military achievements define the period o Acquisition of foreign influence – importation of foreign, art, literature, philosophy, etc. - Rome flourished because of having citizen soldiers o Have something to look forward to after war o But power became concentrated, soldiers want to be professionalized (make it into a career) and given certain rights ~ hand support to one who satisfy their needs – conflict within Rome, power struggles - Augustus quelled unrest, introduced certain reforms, concentrated power to one ruler – imperator - Rome started to lose status as capital city because it was difficult to manage such a big empire from there (too far west compared to most of its territory) - Roman empire later split into West and East – Byzantium the capital of the Eastern half Sources for early Roman religion - Historians - Literature - Calendars - Consular lists - Pontifical records (fragmentary) – priestly - Material evidence - Romans, like Greeks, considered History as a genre o Literature ~ poetry - Mid Rep, Aeneas, myth of Romulus and Remus survived in fragments - But is there continuity? Calendars - Describe which days are (feasts), holidays, work-days, festivals - Capital letter festivals = older, more important Roman festivals - Supposedly formed by King Numa (2 king) nd Consular Lists - Goes all the way back from Augustan Period to the very first consuls - Common to date by consul Pontifical records - Pontifices record little changes, notes, accounts on annals o Sometimes cited by historians - Biased to what the pontifices think was important at the time – not all inclusive (very selective) Material Evidence - Statues, temple ruins, votive offerings, etc. - Inscriptions, art - Votive offerings given in exchange as a vow o Act as thanksgiving for god curing ailment o Contractual offering o Votum (vota, pl.) Foundation of Rome - Close to the island of Tiber, adjacent to the Field of Mars and the Tiber River - Pomerium surrounds the city of Rome o Sacred boundary supposedly established by Romulus o Extended when the Romans acquired more territory - Capitoline, Palatine and Aventine the three most important hills o Oldest cults, oldest temples on the Capitoline and Aventine o Palatine popularized in the Augustan period, temples built on it Greek / Etruscan influence - Magna Graecia – Greek settlement - located on the southern tip of Italy and had contact with the early settlers of Rome o No doubt that they have interacted as early as the foundation of Rome - Inherited Greek myths, absorbed and internalized aspects of Greek religion - Etruscans also influenced temples, sacred art, deities of Roman religion - Roman supposedly inferior to the Etruscans (great civilization) - Divination, auguries, haruspices devised from the Etruscans (foreign traditions recognized by the Romans as necessary for their religion to function) - Etruscan concept of an afterlife – sarcophagus o Gender equality depicted – sculpted man and woman reclining on couch on the lid Aeneas - Trojan prince, son f Aphrodite - Carried out Trojan city gods – penates - Ideas of pietas (duty to family and gods) attributed to him - Established a city near where Rome will be, begun the cultural traditions of Rome - His descendants, Romulus (and Remus), are the founders of Rome (i.e., competition between the two resulted in Rome) o She
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