Class Notes (836,615)
Canada (509,866)
Classics (1,714)
CLA160H1 (318)
Lecture

CLA 310 L09.26

6 Pages
50 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Classics
Course
CLA160H1
Professor
Susan Dunning
Semester
Fall

Description
CLA 310 – Religion of Rome S. Dunning 09/26/12 **Material up to Oct. 3 lecture for midterm Communication with the gods - How did the Romans communicate with their gods? o Ritual, performance are ways in which the ancient Romans communicate with their deities - Theories and models o Communication theory (cf., Ripke) o Theories of performance (cf., Bell) o Speech-act theory (cf., Austin) o Do-et-des model (many; cf., Pulleyn)  Give so you give (reciprocal relationship) - Sacrifices, oracles o Oracles are divinely initiated o Sacrifice different aspects of life (e.g., time, resources) o Go big or go home with way of communicating  Sign of respect, must come with something  Flashy gets attention of deities - Festivals o Ritual sequence o Combination of many different rituals done in a short period of time - Ritual associated with some tradition – present meaning rooted in past value - Ritual also considered as habit o Not necessarily religious in nature o E.g., drinking water in morning - Performance – someone performing might not know what he is doing but what he’s doing can change his way of thinking o Substitute for “ritual” o Usually an act of respect to the deity - Reciprocal / ethics Stages of sacrifice - Performed at altar outside of temple - “Bloodless” vs. animal sacrifices - Private vs. Public content o May be followed by vow; if fulfilled, additional votive offering - Must be perficio – done fully, perfectly o Depicted in full afterwards - Major sacrifices accompanied by music, many attendants, etc. - Greek or Roman rite? - Officiation of sacrifice usually headed by women - Camillus = young children, especially boys, go and help out with the oracle - Disruption of service = failure to finish = bad - Public funds sponsor public sacrifices - Generals, on behalf of their troops , sponsor to celebrate victories – first ask to be granted permission to hold a triumph Pompa (Procession) - Finest clothes, decorated animals (gilded horns) - Host = sacrificant - Slaves, half-clothed (in contrast to their well-dressed masters (i.e., togas)), slaughter the sacrificial victims - Complete procession o Artwork enjoyed by humans will be enjoyed by the gods as well - Cooperation / assent of the animal is important for the sacrifice to work – must be a willing participant Prayer and Libraion - Long, short prayers - Pouring of the wine on the earth / fire = libation ~ allowing the gods to partake in the celebration with wine - Veiling of officiant with toga (Roman rite – as opposed to Greek rite of having a naked head, i.e., no head covering like a hat) - Sensual experience Sprinkling of wine and mola salsa - Mola salsa prepared by the Vestal Virgins (flour, salt mixture) - Sprinkle over the sacrificial animal (to prepare it) Killing of the Victim - Romans do not fixate on sacrifice in artwork – therefore such scenes are rare - Slave kills animals Examination of Entrails - Looking for abnormalities in the innards of the animal - Must have religious expert on hand – like priest or pontifex maximus – to tell what is present (or not) in the entrails - Sacrifice done over if it’s not good - If something is missing = prodigy / ill omen o More rituals must be performed to propitiate gods (i.e., appease) - Normal citizens cannot afford big animals – usually cakes or smaller animals Burning on Altar and Banquet - Bones, fat, sinews burned for the gods - Roman citizens then fed with the sacrificial meat OR it’s sold in the (meat) market - Burning whole sacrifices ~ holocaust o E.g., dogs, suovetaurilia - Vestal Virgins are invited to sacrificial banquets (participate) – gods are invited too Suovetaurilia (and lustrum) - Often paired with celebration – and accounting for the Roman people (?) - Renewing contract with the gods – purifying Roman people with the sacrifices - Word a fusion of the Latin for pig (sus), ram (ovis) and bull (taurus) - Associated with private and public rituals of purification o Of an army before battle o Of the city after a prodigy Lectisternia and sellinesteria - Lectisternium = a banquet given to, and in honour of, the gods – to share in the Roman people’s meal th o First celebrated in the early 4 c. BC (Livy) o Incorporated into several major festivals o Introduced to Rome from the Greek world o Couches set out for the deities to sit in - Sellinesterium is the equivalent of a lectisternium, but instead of couches to recline in, the deities were made to sit in chairs (to goddesses, mostly) - This ritual banquet begun in times of distress o Sibylline books guarded by the (quin)decimviri – usually recommend that the ritual be done Ludi Circensis - Ludi = games – done in a circus (i.e., not the same circus as modern pop culture) - Chariot races included among many other athletic games, hunts, e
More Less

Related notes for CLA160H1

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit