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CLA310 oct 2.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Susan Dunning

CLA310 – Lecture October 2 Religious spaces and objects in the Roman world - Other rituals: - Parilia – celebrate birthday of Rome - Purification - Rural origins – protection for sheep - October Horse (Equus October) - Sacrifice to chthonic gods - Made holocaust offering – a horse - Ludi Romanii - Oldest festival involving ludi - Annual - Ambarvalia - Celebrate goddess associated with Ceres - Compitalia - Sacrifice to the lares at crossroads - Important to roman understanding of place - Parentalia and Lemuria - To “divine shades”/ ancestors - Appeasement of the dead - Private - Prayers - Division of ancient prayers 1. invocation – important to get correct deity 2. explanation + justification – why deity should help 3. request - may include praise of diety - may or may not be accompanied by material offering - may be formulaic or spontaneous - could have rhythm and accompanied by music - hymns - distinguishing between hymns and prayers difficult - metrical or rhythmic; accompanied by music - offering of praise of thanks to a deity - requests may be included - hymn itself is an offering - often praise of a god = thanksgiving - complex or simple - emphasis on beauty of language + performance  pleasure to deity - may be sung in procession – Greek practice - main different = hymns are an offering in itself - mid- republic adopt practice of processions - hymns accompanied by a visual - hymn to Juno after prodigy - brought in by Sibylline Books - can have similar structure to prayers - can be followed or preceded by a prayer - “performance utterances” - Some utterance are actions in themselves - Examples: I bet you $5; the statement represents the bet - Important conditions: the persons speaking the utterance must follow conventions of their society in the appropriate context correctly and sincerely - Hymns and prayers are religious actions - Hegio’s prayer to Jupiter for the safe return of this son – Plautus’ play - Spontaneous but structured - Shows that boundaries in roman religion can be blurred - Passage is neither a hymn or a prayer, but a combination of both - Votive offerings and inscriptions - For durability and remembrance - Ludi Saeculares - Celebrated every 100- 110 years - Campus Martius – altar by Tarentium dedicated to a chthonic god - Need to sacrifice a black cow - Family Valerii instituted this ritual at a time of crisis in Rome - Then became linked to public sphere - First record 249 BC called Ludi Tarentini - Augustus holds the next one in 17 BC – “new tradition” - Did he change the name to Ludi Saeculares? - Revival of republican religion – propaganda - Usher in a “new age” in 17 BC by holding games - Changes chronology of games to fit his so it would reflect the 100 year requirement - By this time he holds every important political and religious position – ability to change records - Involves new deities - Night sacrifices are part of the original festivals – these sacrifices are conducted by Augustus alone
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