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lec 2

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University of Toronto St. George
Yuriy Lozynsky

Lec 2 ‘The Coming of the Greeks?’Minoans and the Mycenaeans; DarkAges; c. 3000- 800 BCE Key points from last lecture (the below will be tested in papers and exams) Basic chronological terms in Classical Studies (Proto,Archaic, Classical, Late, Hellenistic BronzeAge, c. 3000-1000 BCE (bronze used for statues and weapons) Types of evidence used in Classical studies Textual sources (velum, that is, skin, papyrus and later, Topography of Greece and how it shaped the development of societies (mountainous, is also a peninsula, near sea, poor in resources) Aegean Sea and spread of Greek culture Connections in the widerAegean world Esp. Hittites and Egyptians The near east ---------- The broader Mediterranean world We will focus on the area around theAegean Sea, in particular Today: Chronological scheme and names to keep in mind Indo- Europeans Minoans c. 3500- c. 1100? BCE Mycenaeans c. 1900?- 1100 BCE Pelasgians Dorians Herakleidai, the ‘Sons of Herakles” (known thus through ancient evidence) Indo- Europeans Acommon mother culture called indo- European By c. 3000 BCE these people started spreading throughout the region The steppes ofAsia This is all very hypothetical The dates put on screen are firm dates with evidence to support these dates Eg. 1900 BCE Hittites 1500 BCE Linear B tablets Spread to italy was in 700 BCE (migrant indo- Europeans dropped off and settled at various places, carrying with them their indo- European culture, developed locally, but the locals still share some common things) Elements of indo-european culture: Common linguistic words (eg. father, to carry, Zeus) Eg. In Greek, Latin, Sanskrit, Gothic (Germanic) Similar myths (eg. plot lines; slaying dragons) (a last name) Dumezil: Tripartite theory (warriors, priests, everyone else eg. farmers) Warriors and priests are the kings This structure found in societies and in their myths (a last name) Kristiansen: IE BronzeAge rulers Studied burial materials Esp. the armours and swords They had actually been used Other burial sites the armours and swords were ceremonial burial stuff There were actual warrior kings and there were symbolic warrior kings Minoans c. 3500- c. 1100? BCE Indo-europeans coming into the Greek world Earliest Hittite evidence (refer to above date) The indo- Europeans (who became the Greeks) may have also come in in the latest 2000 BCE The Francthi cave, and the Delini settlement (pre Greek culture up till about 6000 BCE, they were not indo- Europeans) The society in place when the indo- Europeans settled there We see a continuity of usage of pottery (between the time from the cave and the settlement), but then there was a break, ie. New types of pottery, new tools, new uses of bronze at about the time the indo- Europeans came in and brought their new culture with them Though some think the indo- Europeans arrived earlier or later But in exams just say 2000 BCE ------ Herodotus, c. 440s BCE, Halicarnassian Mentions Dorians and Barbarians (the pre- indo- europoeans) Admiral and stateman Thucydides, c. 405 BCE,Athenian 1 scientific historian Mentions a group coming in after the Trojan war Danaans,Argives andAchaeans Pelasgians (who were probably the Minoaeans) and Dorians (were possibly the Mycenaeans, or the people who destroyed Mycenaean civilization in the Bronze age) They are from the Classical period They had some awareness that there was a population who had lived in Greece before the Greek speakers Some dialects and isolated words that don’t have an indo- European root (happens in word endings a lot; there are lots of place names in Greece that are not indo- European. Could say that was because influence by Persians, could also explain that by saying it was retained from the pre- indo-europeoans) Barbarians= anyone who does not speak greek (they sould like sheep= bar bar bar) Minoan Civilization c. 3500 -1100 BCE Sites and choronology SirArthur Evans King Minos and Minoan mytrhology Artistic culrue: nature- loving Minoans? Their religion Administrative centres: sealstones, writing Minoan thalasacracy Their fall The big one is Knossos The place where King Minos ruled from Another place called Phystos Centred on Crete Lots of Minoan influcance in theAegean and other places too Early Minoan period Middle Minoan period (lots of palaces, administration really gets going) Late Minoan period (Maycenans destry and take over Greek) Palace of Knossos was very elaborate Had a huge central courtyard Avery organized sophisticated building SirArthur Evans British archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann was who found Troy Came back to Greek mainland found traces of Mycenaean civilization Evans went to Crete Found what he thought was an older civilization than the Myceaneans On the first day of his excavation he found a palace there Which had a throne there (one of the first things he founds) Found the “first throne of the European king” He also found the Linear B tablets (which were Minoan? and not Myceanean) Minoan mythology Minos (King) According to myth, was a wise king who decides where in the underworld people go to in the underworld Minotaur AnAthetnian kills the Minotaur (half man with a bull’s head) The bull was fascinating in Minoan culture Zeus fell in love with the woman Europa. He turned into a huge bull, Europa fell in love with it. Took her and swam to Crete. Minos was one of their children. Minos prayed to Poseidon to send him a bull to sacrifice to Poseidon. Did not sacrifice it.As revenge, made Mino’s wise fall in love with a bull. 7 boys and 7 girls had to come to Crete, which were food for the Minotaur. Theseus was one of the boys, kills the Minotaur Theseus andAriadne Aweird sport called bull-eating? Jumping over a charging bull Was it a sport, religious ritual etc. we don’t know Popular drinking vessel of the Minoans (a bull’s head) Entrance to the palace is a bull frieze Bull is everywhere in Minoan culture The palace in Knossos is a labyrinth (parallel to the myth above) Slaves handled the bulls (the myths reflected actual Minoan life) The art decorations in the discovered palace: Exotic animals Crocus plants (which we get saffron from, prized inAegean world) Crocus- picking women The women wear flounced jackets, headdresses exposed their breasts The Minoan prince= ceremonial headdress Head shape indicates have not become adults (eg. long locks) Dancing women, elaborate headdresses Ocean and dolphins Minyan- ware Pottery Different pottery designs (eg. of octopus); sophisticated Statue of a boy made with lots of different materials Types of scenes eg. nature scenes (animals and plants) Movement (eg. dancing women, women jumping around in the sea) Indications that the Minoans were nature –loving and loved fast movement, peace- loving though we still find some weapons The flower- sniffing Minoans Uluburun shipwreck, late 14 c. BCE Indicated Minoans were well connected Find Minoan pieces that had been imported Skeworphism (to change something), ie: We find cheap imitations of it (eg. stone jug with metal in it) Same style made of clay, brandished with a sheen to make it look like metal They could not buy the original Minoan stuff but could copy it Lustal Basin Where you clean yourself Maybe used for religious ritual, sacrifice etc. we don’t know Double sided axes Were not real axes for battle or tool They were really heavy, made of gold Find these everywhere Must be some sort of economical May be for religious or ritual activity Horns of consecration (large stone monuments) Peak sanctuaries on mountaintops Votives from peak sanctuaries (statues) Dedicated to the shrine Of hands, feet, phalluses Dedicate so
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