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lec 6

14 Pages

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Yuriy Lozynsky

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Lec 6 Theatre, history, rhetoric Theatre= comedy and tragedy 2 other genres of grek and roman lit= history and rhetoric History is to give information about the past (its purpose) Herodotus= a historian Eg. his history of the Persian wars (1 continuous narrative of the past) He is the father of history Causes and origins of the Persian wars Herodotus recounts myths as well in his works: Myth ofAerion (saved by riding a dolphin Servant called Gygeas (saw the queen naked, killed husband, gave him throne) Giving an entertaining story was just as important as telling what happened in the past No different between entertainment and information He does both in his works Moer accurate to call him father of historical fiction He presents many interesting and fun stories that are probably invented But based on some historical events Eg. attacking giant ants Once they steal the gold they were chased by these giant ants Some pieces of info that are credible, but do not accept everything Herodotus says at face value The next major historian= Thucydides He is more accurately the father of history Because his works are accounts of the past Wrote about the pelopponesian war Actually participated in it For part of his own book he was an actual witness himself It is a lot more fun reading Herodotus Thucydides consciously rejected the style of his predecessors (such as Herodotus) His purpose was to preserve the info of his age for future generations But even Thucydies was not up to our standards His sources were mostly by asking people (word of mouth ) Just like Herodotus (though H says T more meticulous than H (tries to verify these accounts by getting more than one witness T’s speeches really liked including long 「「d set」 speeches in his works These speeches are much too long, elaborate, But HOW DOES T KNOW such actual speeches in great detail? Speeches on the spot would not be in papyrus T invented them! And he admits that he did that Don’t tell what actually said Instead I tell what should have been said The words that give you the spirit, rather than the details of the events that happened For T, even, it is okay to compromise the facts if he believes it serves the purpose Xenophon’s style in many ways follows T Among other ways he continued the work of the pelopponesian war where T left off ROMAN HISTORIANS Livy and Tacitus By far the most famous and important The ormans were preceded and insired by the Greeks Livy and Tacitus compared to H and T respectively Livy wrote a work dcalled from the foundation of the city Avery long narrative An account from beginning to his time, of Rome We get much info from him about early, esp. republican Rome Livy likes to put in stories Eg. stories about many factual details Livy does compromisse the factual account Not to simply tell a good story But to tell his contemporaries to educate the youths, esp to give them a moral education How did Rome get this great? Doesn’t give a meticulous account Instead with stories, mainly legendary stories ppl don’t believe are true, but illustrate the spirite of the past The kinds of virtues and values that the romans had that allowed them to achieve the status they had, by Livy’s ime Eg. Romulus and Reums And the wolf that suckled them Became great examples for the roman youth of Livy’s day He talked about the heroes who sacrified themselves for Rome Tacitus evalues the truth of what happens, less than being entertaining But even he allows himself to sli[p from the standard Esp. his biasa he lets shine through frequently He likes a good speech He couldn’t have known Clearly, like T, invented the storiy to give the spirit insteand of the factual account ------ The field of rhetoric The field of public speaking Lysias Demosthenes Cicero The most in =mortant institution of life was the polis Aself contained independent cit- state Made its own laws Voted when top make peace, etc Had its own constitutionyp Whether these poleis were democratic or oligarchic (the 2 main systems) The decisions of the poleis were always made by a council or an assembly (both , in the case ofAthens) In case of oligarchy, only select few would be included Democracy, would include all male citizens Group decision making To come to a majority consensus of what to do Almost never happened= that people agreed immediately The councils had to persuade the rest to their opinion Oligarchic state= only the aristocratic males had some power Judicial matters were settled similarly Council (same council that made administrative decisions, or a separate) There were no separate politicians The need to speak well was not limited to one limited group of people Eg. if you had court case, no matter if you were plaintiff or defendanjt, you had to speak for yourself Making a good speech was a valuable skill Anew professon was made You could get somebody to write you a very good speech Which youd memorize, practicel them speak it before the court The famous people of this professions were the 2 greeks Lysias and Demosthenes and the roman Cicero These same men were active in the public sphere They also gave political speeches themselves, some of these speeches have survived as well There are forensic speeches There are political speeches, esp those for the assembly Athird kind of speech survives, called a demonstration speech (a speech just for show. Eg. a funeral eulogy would be a demonstration of a public speech) Aka. Epidiictic speech The romans wanted to know what makes a good speech Developed rhetoric=- the science of good speech Methodoloygy- look at surviving recoreds of speeches Would reac them in detail and see what made thos speeches persuasive Boiled it down to science where theyd teach it to politically active young men In the roman time, Rhetoric became one of the most important subjects for those men seeking a political career The three types of argument = ethos (argument that derives from the character of someone involved= a court speech that says I am a certain kind of character, good guy, could not have committed the crime) = pathos argument (could get the jury to feel your rage, etc. to be on your side. Argument based on emotion = logos, based on reason (you couldn’t have committed the crime because you were attending some festival on the same day) The teacjers would instruct these methods of argument to young men ---- Main topic of today is theatre Ie. drama Long odes, long songs, that are difficult to underatnd their place in the plot Surprised by lack of action, characters May seem foreign, if youre more familiar with modern theater To understand the features of ancient drama You must understand the culture Key term= performance These plays were not read tor silent reading Their main job was to be presented on a public festival, on stage The other thing= theater was only a part of a larger musical culture It was a latecomer th In 6 century BC youd not have seen theatre In 5 century BC youd only see it inAthens But long before that youd see many drama long before in many other places of Greece Other drama were found side by side with theatere Musique? Included recitation of poetry, dancing and singing Many greek poetry yo use today was originally sung First of all there were festivals No signing in greek without festivals These were religious festivals, and were fll of music Thered be a procession heading towards the sanctuary, while playing music (eg. from a lyr), thered be a chorus, psinging a hymn) At the sanctuary, standing around the altar, would sing another hymn During the sacrifice, thered be a sole instrumental accompaniment by a flute like thing called the aloi (typically played by a pair) Many references to flutes in lit (this is the apprx. Translation to the alos) More like an oboe than a flute One of the two most important instruments in Greece Would accompany sacrifices, army would march to the sound of the alos Would hear it at a party (esp. in all male private parties (symposium) Funerals, weddings Could be heard just about everywhere Alos players would be hired (eg. in parties) Lyres and alos players during sacrifices The other reason why theyre relevant Greek drama also accompanied by music Hear alos while watching the plays Alos was reserved for profgessional musicians Difficult to learn Aristocratic men shunned this instrument as something meant for profe, lower class craftsmen For aristocratic men, they were to learn lyres, to become full member of aristocratic society Lyre mainly accompanied the saying of epic poetry At symposium,m youd be asked to ick up a lyre and strum it while reciting a iece of homer, or poetsp Or improvise on wth played before you did The culture was the chorus Young boys and girls would start learining the chorus very young And would continue training till their mat
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