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lec 9

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Yuriy Lozynsky

Lec 9 (right after midterm) Roman civilization c. 4000 BC- 509 BC Expect midterm by Friday Contextualize them geographically etc. Just like we did for Greece --- Archaelogy - excavations (eg. in italy, and wherever the romans had lived in, such as in England?) roamns 8 century BC to x centuryAD historiography- Livy romans write their own literature starting from 3 century BC Livy writes in time ofAugustus, writes 5- 6 centuries that were before him So you must always aware what we talk about today are built upon Livy and archaelogy Fasti = ie. calendar or list Eg. told when the holidays etc. Also had a list of magistrates (every year) Building inscriptions And grave materials Eg. grave stones (their instcriptions) Theoins issued in rome were always issued by someone in the government Influences what images are chosen and why et. Roman law is still Liv, in law schools, roman law is still studied Roman law is very important ---- The actual The name Italia Name of southern itely Vitelia (pronouncned Witelia) Means the land of calf (means cow, does not mean the leg calf) Pasturage is good for cows This term was extended further To theAlps (cis alpine alps= alps on THIS side) --- Geography Strategically located Italy is right in the middle of the mediterranean Did not need to contend with the near eastern powers For the most part Italy developed in a strategically located place Landscape= fairly mountainous - Apennines - Alps Rome sits in the Lacion? Lashion Pretty mountainous On the west side of the alps, there are plains Rome developed in the Latin (modern Lazio) region Italy is much more resource rich than Greece Good for pasturage Good for seasonal grazing oof animals Olives, fruits, and also timber is plentiful in Italy Could do less importing than Greece Italy also has lots of coastline So there are lots of ports all around Po river= up north Everything south was Italy Everything north was cis- alpine region Until the x BC/AD Latium= homeland of the romans Everyone spoke Latin Mouth of Tiber river is a major port Liris river is down south --- Many seas surround Italy --- Some of the peoples of Italy - the Phoenicians (the colonizing mother culture of the Punians?) - very active in northAfrica and in Sicily Magna Graecia= southern Italy --- From c. 5000 BC we start seeing settlements in Italy (pre- bronze age, in the Neolithic period) By the time we are in the bronze age by 2000 BC we see introduction of Bronze in Italy Also we see development of one major culture, which transcended into another culture Settlements were in high places that were defensible (hills) --- The 1 culture archaelogists identified are called the Terramara people, from the bronze age Esp. found traces of them in Villanova? Name comes from the local dialect Small huts arranged in small communities Pretty active in hunting And raising domestic animals and agriculture Afeature that they were a stable culture from the bronze age Some pretty sophisticated Esp. the urns Their contact from the wider world Seemed to be some contact ith theAegean world Aspecific kind of axe found in the terramara regions, identified as a terramara axe Amold of such an axe found in Mycaenae Suggests there was contact between the 2 Although Italy was quite insultaed Terramara peoples would also bring in medals in fromAustria (over the alps) Ha contact with the peoples of northern Europe --- The next culture was the Villanovans Developed from the previous culture th - in around the 9 century - there was no major break in pottery etc. - suggests that each cultre had developed from the previous one, unlike in greece They could have been elsewhere in the Italy as well But archaelogists have only studied one site in italy of them The 1 iron age society Biconical urns Characteristic of their culture find them in all their sites Carries ashes? Usage of iron, bronze and greek geometry pottery Had contact with greeks Probably the greeks went to them since the greeks were big with colonialization Transhumance Agriculture Hunting Etc. Grave sites Seen as a proto- urbanized culture Ie. would develop into a city state, or city centre --- language By 2000 BC IE had come into Italy Though there were no breaks in eg. pottery 2 major languages of the italic branch of the IE speakers Oscan branch And Umbrian branch Northern languages connected to Gauls, the celtic peoples who inhabitied ancient france Etruscan speakers Greek dialect speakers in the south All except Truskian are IE languages --- Orientalizing= refers to, in general, the influence of the near eastern of styles of material cuklture on greeks and Italians, also the development of communities, urbanization, and the development of wealthy aristocratic class in Italy th - In 8 century, we start to find really wealthy graves, and not so wealthy graves= indicated stratification of society Orientalizing feature= cup of Nestor (cup from the east) Pyrgi tablets= a treaty in Indonesian and etruskian --- An etruskan tomb site Inside these tombs are wealthy grave goods Aplate from Greece Inside of tomb called tomb of the reliefs (really sophisticated, good worksmanship) Those are elite tombs Were an example of the orientalizing period --- Urbanization came about at the same time Goes hand in hand with orientalization = what were very small communities( eg. family groups) They come together Evidence= Public works (eg. drainage, irrigation work, municipal building, common temple for worshipping) --- 1 urban culture are that of the Etruskans Before the romans, they were the most important peoples in Italy The greekds called them the Tyrsenoi They called themselves the Rasenna Romans cllaed them Etrusci? Their language is not IE They borrow the Greek alphabet Etruskan alphabet written on the jug Amix of greek letters and latin letters? Usine system to writea language that was not IE 2 point= their origins 2 main references - Herodotus Lydian descent From NW: turkey inAsia Minor Including Mediterranean coast Their culture Came intact from the east Dionysius They are auchthocthonous Sprung from the earth There was just a natural development Most agree with Dionysius Absorbed outside influences Suggests IE invasion Most scholast disagree In mid 90s, scientists took their DNA Started matching them with DNAfrom those of others from other places Their DNAresemble those of people from Turkey So Herodotus could be right th In 8 century became urbanized Ha sewer systems, public centres Acity state, urban culture --- Etruskan art --- Political culture In general, they were individual city states There was little unification though shared a common culture When romans started fighting with the etruskans, they had seemed to form a coalition (the Etruskan League) --- Etruskan art Typical etruuskan pottery Really well made See them everywhere Some are native etruskan forms Alot of them are copies of greek styles Good urns Eg. urn of Pluto From the site Tarquinia Frescoes in the interior of the tombs Maybe give us glimpse of their lives Many banquet scenes Men and women on couches dining together Suggests something about status of women Vulci Scene from Trojan war Execution of Trojan prisoners by the Trojans Etruskan goddess (winged figure) Another famous piece from Veii Statue ofApollo Etruskans not IE speakers, but they borrow many names from IE speakers Another famous alabaster sarcophagus Again the man and woman are reclining together unlike the greeks --- Religious practices Were into something called augury Ie. could devine somethi G or make a prophecy, decide whether something was good or bad via the flight of birds Ascene of augurs watching the birds Haruspicy-= the practice of reading livers haruspex= the guy the romans adopted these 2 practices from the Etruskans --- Temple designs Aplatform of a major etruskan site Very typical of their temple design is a big platform And…? Roman cuklture was mix of grreek and Etruscan influence --- Fasces The last 3 kings of rome were etruskans The last of those 3 became a tyrant Romans cast themselves as hating etruskans Romans borrwed idea of fasces (ie. the axes?) and used it themselves Symbolic of military and ? power of the magistrates? Gladiatorial combat= tomb paintings and etc. etruskans had gladiator battles at their funerals Romans adopted the idea of the gladiatorial battle though with a twist -
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