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lec 11

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Yuriy Lozynsky

Next lectue Last lecture: Roman imperialism (was like a theme in their history), and explanations as to why there was imperialism Rome defeated carthage, then became dominant power in western meditteranean --- We don’t know about early roman warfare Was probably raiding warfare (eg. go steal cattle, then provoke a local war) May have fought in something like a hoplite phalanx Armor dated to 6 century, a very much greek style of armor Manipular legion Very mobile, unlike greek phalanx Legio= collection Manipulus= a handful (reference to swuare formation) Front guys= called Hastati (means throwing spear) Then enemy throws shield down Then romans use gladius (short dagger) Lots of success Shiled= a long sort of body shiled (rather than a round shield) Made not of bronze but of wood, Could also be used as an offensive weapon (shield part was called the boss) Scutum Principes= if you survive as a hastate, There was no concept of using reserve soldiers Won by not getting tired Triarii= the oldest veteran soldiers, the third guy The guy with the yellow shield Long thrusting spear Was like a hoplite Would not engage in battle unless they were needed Ere at war or not Pic of an imperial roman soldier Very much the same as above Dilectus Every spring held Whether they w Selecting soldiers Every roman citizen had to attend Roman commanders were politicians, not Their second was as commanders Never was formal training for them Tribunes of the soldiers Usually consuls or praetors Gave them on the job training of how to be a commander Centiruions Like a non commissioned officer” On ground, giving orders Stood at front of formation Also entered lowest level of the aristocracy Auxilia troops supplemented Were foreign troops Filled role of archres, cavalry, naval troops While romans liked to be in the “core” Non- citizen troops At the end of their service (x years) they could become citizens Military service Gaius Marius important political and military figure 2 BC comes into consulship to prosecute Becomes the next big name in roman military when he opens ranks for all roman citizens to become soldiers Before, poor people were excluded from being soldiers, seized social tensions to give poor romans a job… Also gave regular pay for soldiers Began to made army acareer Emerged professional soldiers Military as separate segment of society ---` Finish off the expansion period Scipio invaded spain and drew Hannibal out of Italy Hispania citerior= nearer spain Hispania uklterior= further spain Lots of roman governments who were sent to spain became corrupt (eg. tried to get more taxes) Intense competition among aristocracy One way to get popularity for roman politicians was for military victory They go to spain When they become governmor were quick to look for battle to win a trimpmph Triumph hunting Displacing local popu,llations The other major resource of spain= silver mines Romans took control away from them away rom the locals 2 major wars Viriathius rises to prominence, becomes geurilla soldiers Defeated several roman amies in Ultimately traps a roman army Captured Lets them go Tle But had to create treaty Become allly But romans find loophole years later and it became void In 138 they hatch a plot among locals to assassinate Viriathus The alliance crumbles and the romans suppress the rebellion After the chaelaean war That was the end of the resistance in spain Spain was a roman province then! --- North italy, south Gaul Po river Aboundary Athick line in the pic Colinixation could have a military effect too Liguira compaign See pic where it is Lots of guerilla warfare by the locals Small scale warfare Romnas take locals from lugira and settle them in Samnium, And put colonists in Ligura For political reasons and for… Contrast with massacring them or selling them as slaves Created province of Gallia Nar Cynoscephalaea =battle at the dogs head Romans win Roman general= Flamininius Successful politicna And class of roman aristocracy who was a lover of things greek After he won, he framed himself as the liberator of Greece from Macedonian rule nd That wast he 2 war rd 3 Macedonian war His son was called Perseus Framed himself as saviour of greek world against the romans Romans were constantly being defeated In 168 They arrange Macedonius to take command in Macedonia Eg. he reforms discipline Battle of Pindar? Southern Macedonia Defeats Perseus League ofAchaeans rebel  destruction of Corinth (roman aggression) 146 BC Roman forms Greece into 2 provinces, Macedonia andAchaia --- The results of overseas expansion - roman senate becomes far away the dominant force in politics because throught this period lots of wealth coming into italy and this mostly went to the elites - the senate was always existent, always involved in foreign policy, became most dominant force in roman politics, solidifies senate as dominant power - roman generals saw themselves as hellenistic kings (attention to the detailed hair, face called detailed youth? - Romans copied their style - The picture was of Flamininus - Romans were clear shaved - Though - Saw himself as greek, Hellenistic rulers, so sprouted a beard (the coin) - Romans interested in historical realism in their art (eg. on friezes - Literature dewvelops  Eg. Plautus (comedywriter, new comedy styed) - Romans bilingual esp aristocrats  Next opint= enormous amounts of greek statuary and fulls cale stuff came in; greek influence on roman art - Romans embark onto road building - Greek phy - Dicians, drawn to - new incentives in italy  Majority of this wealth go to the aristocracy (elite class of romans)  Allows them to invest  money and buy land in italy  romans also take lots of slaves (eg. greeek slaves come into italy)
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