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lec 3

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Yuriy Lozynsky

Lec 3 In midterm there will be a section on images Just a few quick points from last lesson 1500 BC firm evidence that say Greeks were already there= Linear B Key points for today Heavily draw from Homer and Hesiod Military history (Hoplite warfare The role of women ------- The DarkAges in Greece 200-800 BC? The actual life style and cultural environment from Homer drew from the actual Dark Ages We have the most direct frame of reference from Homer and Gesiod Homer= 750-700 BC Archaelogy Hesiod is from Boetia TheAttic Peninnsula Pelopponnesse And ?mainland Greece? There were no gold and silver tools as such in the golden age etc. Golden age was when Cronos was the sky God and was the father of Zeus (when Cronos was ruling) It was like a Utopia They become daimones Silver age humans lived under Zeus Once they leave their mothers they don’t live very long Quarrels, arguments, becomes impious towards Gods, Zeus then destroys them Bronze age Humans war-mad Iron age, where humans are living in now ------- Amodel of the shield That has scenes on it Life in the DarkAges according to Homerc --------- Smaller centres developing in the hills, or non centralized adminstration Population delines rapidly Very isolated and closed (no trad) An exception to this trend:Athens Athens population increases, influx of potteries Athens became refuge 「lots of people flood into Athen」 Pots have not much colour, mostly just earth tones In Athens Lead to this myth that they were Autochthonous Born from the earth They claimed that they were invincible from attack And were native to Greeks even before the Dorians wo invaded during the Mycenaean period ----- The diffusion of dialects Once they got to the peninsula The Greeks got into groups and tribes Linear B tablets found in Pylos, Tyrins and Mycenae, and Knossos, etc. The way the different palaces were writing Greek were the same There was more consistency that Greek was being spoken They could understand each other A lot to do with topography of Greece, the isolation Tribes in Greece Sometime between end of Bronze age and then Ionic dialect (western coast of Asia Minor) Doric dialect (invaders at the end of the bronze age) Aeolic (native to the ocean region) Regions and dialects and dialects based on region Homer was part of the bardic tradition Lefkandi Gives informant about Dark Ages And also about the expansion and recovery period The Heroon = a huge building of “Hero” Inside it found cashes of grave goods Eg. the centaur In the middle was a buried a man An urn with ashes of sb Female bones Bones of horses right beside him Maybe woman and horses were sacrified Was this the local cult? Or he might have been a local chieftan Dark ages was organized on chieftain based clan- kinship unit Where you have a chieftan and unit of nobility or council A strong man with a group of retainers Size of settlements were probably very small Greek Time means honour 「could have it, lose it, retain it eg. in battle」 Greek Kleos means fame (you want to keep it intact, goes hand in hand with time) Greek xenia means guest friendship (as a Greek you were supposed to show good hospitality at whoever shows up at your house, wash, feed, ask him questions) Zeus protects the xenia Xenia (gift giving relationships with other villages) From the early period 950BC There are luzury goods from overseas and from other places of Greece Greece starts contact with oversea, and also becomes more unified Expansion vs. colonization Emporion (trading centre) Apoikia 「away from colonies」 The difference is that settlements founded informally by Greek traders set up a trading company Elaborate trade networks that were not connected to political groups (set up by adventurous who were also rich) th th In 8 and 7 centuries Greece was ever the greatest mass colozination in history See the ppt pic Persian empire expanding from asia minor into Egypt during that time Greeks came into contact with peoples: Truskians (early Italitans who dominated the romans) ----- Motivations for colonization You get money because your ship carries goods (economic motivation) You need outside goods (imports) New techniques (eg for farming) Because of the expanding population back home (getting rid of excess people) General reason of exploration You also get political power (as a member of the founding group of this colony) What Hesiod says in works and days may have something to do with during what happened during the colonial period (having one sone) nd You should die old if you have 2 son to accumulate enough wealth for him -------- Cyrene A formal colonization The guy who leads this colony is Battus When he gets to his new colony Battus will be king The idea of overpopulation -------- The return of writing One of the earliest examples is grafitti The written Greek alphabet reemerged in Anatolia (persian empire) Within a century Greek writing spread throughout the Aegean again Cup of Nestor (in the Illiad Nestor was a local chieftan figure) It has graffiti on the cup Writing had already developed enough Another exam[lpe The jug ------- Hoplite phslsnx Reconstruction of a classical greek hoplite Hoplite armor from 675 BC We find this armor Hoplite omes fom the word hplon (the word for chef) orc even after bronze age, the greeks contiutouse Bronze for their armor the armor was very heavy (half as heavy as the guy wearing it) helmet wold be hard to wear panoply= his whole suit of his armor the armor kit phalanx= how these guys fought means the roller long thrusting spears, youd have to stay very close to all the other guys slow march, then
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