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CLA 310 L10.03

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Susan Dunning

CLA 310 – R ELIGION IROMAN W ORLD S. DUNNING 10/03/12 R ELIGIOUSPACES ANDOBJECTS IN THROMAN W ORLD **Midterm – online sample - 10/10, 1h - Material from weeks 1-4 (09/12 – 10/03), reading and lectures - No notes allowed - Vocab ID, short answers, text / image analysis, long answer - 100 marks, 20% of final grade - Will be followed by Lecture **Research Essay - Topic of your choice - Research proposal 10/31 o Research question, tentative thesis, 2-3 sentence summary of essay, 8 items for bibliography (primary and secondary sources) - Final essay 3000 – 3500 words (approx. 10-14 pgs.) o 10-12 items in bibliography (primary and secondary sources) - Usual format of 12 pt. font, double-spaced with 1-inch margins o Last name and page number on each page - Chicago style is preferred LAST CLAS… Communication with gods, sacrifices, various kinds of religious performances, major festivals Other rituals - Parilia o Birthday of Rome, purification, lustration, sulfur burning (cleansing effect) o Origins from the country – protection for the sheep (rural counterpart) - October Horse (Equus October) o Holocaust offering of a horse  Horses not fit for consumption o Offered to Mars – associated with chthonic deities  Odd sacrifice to odd deity  E.g., dog sacrifice at Lupercalia - Ludi Romani o Oldest annual festival that involves games - Ambarvalia o Festival associated with the Arval Brothers o Associated with Ceres / Bona Dea - Compitalia o Associated with the Lares Compitales  Guardians of crossroads and neighborhoods – festival sacralising areas of cities o Celebration of these Lares o Flower offering at the little marker altars o Augustus renames them as the Lares Augusti  Opportunity for self-propaganda - Parentalia and Lemuria o Parentalia – commemoration fo dead ancestors  Roman belief of existence after death with collective dead (anonymous body of spirits) o Lemuria – associated with the dark side – dead not particularly always benevolent  Ghost-like and must be appeased - These festivals are noticed more at a household environment Prayers - C. Ausfeld’s division of ancient prayers 1. Invocation 2. Explanation and justification (of asking for a request) 3. Request - May include praise of deity – name of deity must be known and must be addressed properly o Flattery is important to get attention - May or may not be accompanied by material offering - May be formulaic or spontaneous - Could have rhythm and be accompanied by music - Must give good enough explanation as to why you’re worthy of their favour (#2) - Praise = little offering, which may sometimes be enough to win your case Hymns - Problem of distinguishing between hymns and prayers - Metrical or rhythmic, accompanied by music - Offering of praise or thanks to a deity, but requests may be included - Often, praise of god = thanksgiving (cf. Moussy) - Emphasis on beauty of language and performance  pleasure to deity - Simple meter, language – “austere beauty” - May be sung in procession o Singing accompanied with visual spectacle – originally a Greek practice - Main difference between hymns and prayers – hymns are an offering in themselves - Simplicity for ease of understanding - Hymn might involve all 3 elements of prayers or have just praise/request (because it may be preceded by a prayer - No generic “thank you” – worded out differently Austin: “Performative Utterances” - Some utterances are actions in themselves o E.g., “I bet you five dollars” / “Thank you for the book” / You helped us win the game” (in a speech later) - Important conditions – the persons speaking the utterances must follow conventions of their society in the appropriate context correctly and sincerely - Flaw in prayer/hymn is a failure o Must deliver the prayers properly, authentically Captiui 922-927 - Hegio, the senex, rejoices that his son Philopolemus has been found safely o Offer thanks and then reasons why – formulaic but not requesting for anything - Comedy >> soap opera – meter and rhythm ( same way as Comedy works) - Can be creative in taking / getting attention of gods - Addressing both gods and people Votive offerings and Inscriptions - Often found in temples - Recorded for posterity - Can be offered by anyone - E.g., slave girl inscribed votive offerings (evidence) - Give words durability – signify a temporary act (e.g., sacrifice was of the moment) Ludi Saeculares - Rare celebration (every 100-110 years) - Games done every age (secular games ~ centennial - Records ~ this done in the Republic (called the same?) - Campus Martius outside of the pomerium, altar there at Tarentum dedicated to Dis and Proserpina – sacrifice of black cattle and bull - Connected with the Valerii supposedly especially Valerius Publicula , first consul fo the Rome, 509 BC - Linked to public performances - 249 BC celebration coincided (?) with time of distress - Ludi Tarentii sacrifice to chthonic gods with games - Oracles dictate celebration done in 100 years - Augustus at 17 BC celebrated – new age = new cycle (no civil wars, there’s political stability, Augustus has titles and religion has disntiegrated) o Augustus just decides to rewrite religious calendar - Reconciled new cycle with Valerii establishment - Amalgamated new ritusl into the L. Saec. L. Saec. Discussion 1. Who planned the L. Saec.? 2. Wh performs the rituals? 3. Where do the rituals take place? What is the significance of the location(s)? 4. List as many different rituals found in the games as you can, and explain their significance for communicating with the gods. 5. What is unusual about the L. Saec.? - Internal planning (quindecimviri and the Imperial family, especially Augustus and Agrippa) - Performers – imperial family (i.e., Augustus, Agrippa), matrons, some of the quindecimviri (present) o Capito helped with divine and legal matters (religious legal advisor) o Valerii included (2 of the quindecimviri – on the list, right after Agrippa and the last one) - Matrons at Sellisternium with Juno - Augustus, holocaust to Jupiter with Agrippa - Augustus alone did the sacrifices to the chthonic gods, the Fates, Ilythia, (the original / traditional L. Saec. deities) at night - Black offerings and cakes for nighttime sacrifices (usually for chthonic deities), white offerings for daytime offerings (to the deities above) - Valerius (older one, after Lepidus) dismissed actors for the next part – stage manager (diminished position of the descendant of the games’ founder) - Traditional Greek rituals took place at the Campus Martius at night - Sacrifices at the Capitoline to Jupiter and Juno - Sacrifice to Apollo and Diana at the Palatine - Procession from the
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