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Lec 13

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University of Toronto St. George
Yuriy Lozynsky

Lec 13 Civil war III The Principate of Augustus 44 BCE- 14 CE We have 3 classes left after today Study guide for final exam will be posted by Monday --- The beginning of the roman empire Augustus promosted the Principiate His reign- 27 BC- 47 CE? Ruled for a long time Gave stability to the roman system --- Gracchi Extension of citizenship to allies Land redistribution Violence was introduced, was start of the roman revolution Optimates (elite derive power thru senate and clientele network, could play politics rough!) vs. Populares (more interested in working thru tribune of pleb, circumventing power of the senate) Jugurthine War, Social War and Mithridatic War= the backdrop to the 3 individuals Pompey, Caesar and the third guy Sulla= Went some way towards stabilizing the republican system Caesar tried to restabilize republican gov (some scholars say) Took some steps towards that way, then was assassinated --- Republicans= those involved in assassination of Caesar The people out to save the republic What institutions Augustus set up Religious collegia= religious colleges --- Republicans vs. Caesarians In immediate aftermath after Caesar’s assassination (in the theater of Pompey) Shouting that they were saving the republic Stylized themselves as tyrant killers (a Greek idea) Drawing on a greek concept Convinced the romans were going to rise up and thank them! Didn’t happen!’ Abrief cessation of violence The other faction= Antony’s men have a meeting Could erupt in civil war, meeting, agreement they came to During Caesars funeral Mark Antony and Octavian= tried to show sense of unity, by hosting a funeral for Caesar Antony delivered a fantastic eulogium Eulogium to roman people Brandished the bloody cloak of Caesar? People get so irriatted at them they run them out of town Conspirators leave Italy and go to Greece Civil war predicted to happen by conspirators Caesarians control rome Conspirators try to recruit an army Have a mint, could make your own coins The figures on the front of these 2 is the personification of Liberty= a goddess Veiled= has relifious connotations Cassius’s name on coin, means he minted this coin The staff ceremonial carried around Aceremonial jug Lictors on coin at left Idea= Brutus and Cassius tried to legitimate themselves via coinage Were very religious We adhere to religion Bottom left coin= other propaganda coins (because has their face on it) Coin advertising Brutus as IMP (gives right to lead troops in battle etc.) Person who held imperium was called the imperator (base root of word for emperor) Idea= he was legitimate commander The backside of coin= trophy Bottom right= another Brutus image Eyes of march Daggers= famous for their assassination Practical= neede to mint money to pay troops --- Soon after the funeral He and Octavian and Marcus Lepidus? (one of Caesars old generals, a senior guy) Formed a three-man commission to try to restabilize the republic 1 was in exile 2 triumvirate moddleed upon 1 triumvirate (Caesar, Pompey and the 3 one) rd From an aristocratic family, While Octavian= his grandfather was equestrian His father was a novus homo (made his way into consulship at one point) His mother was niece of Caesar? =distant connection to Julian family Excellent scholar Caesar adopted him as son when he was 19 (no political career yet) Was an obscure guy Adoption gave him name of Caesar And gives him all of Caesar’s wealth And all of Caeasar’s political positions and social rank Except Lepidus, the other 2 enjoyed popular support from plebs and patricians? Lepidus was 3 wheel more just to maintain the triad When you have 3, its more difficult to resist the other man (2 vs. 1)! Slowly squeezed out of the political arrangement! Authorize them to go punish Brutus and Cassius (the conspirators) Given sanction by the senate Implemented a series of proscription lists 130 senators, and 2000 equestrians? Kill political enemies One killed was Cicero! Alot aboutAntony was written by Cicero (his political opponent) The showdown occurred at northern Greece at Philippa Between Macedonia and Thrace Battle at Philippi was the end battle nd Consequence= you have the 2 triumvirate in control Those 3 are in supreme power The system set up was basically a façade The 3 triumvirate leaders come to an agreement Was able to keep east and gaul Octavian kept west side (sphere of influence was in west, though in time he takes over Gaul) Even though republican system, they controlled strips of land Similarly t
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