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Lecture 3

Lecture 3 - Egypt

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University of Toronto St. George
Jacqueline Brunning

January 14 Lecture #3, CLA160 Egypt Mesopotamia Egypt [Greek Pre-History] rd 3 MILL Sumerian civ Old Kingdom 2 MILL Akkadian civ Middle Kingdom Minoans [not Greek, but their civ [Hyksos invasion] preceded and influenced Greeks] New Kingdom Mycenaeans - pharaohs are essentially Kings o monarchical system: single rule over Egyptian nation o ruled in dynasties (passing control to children) - key aspects: o Nile: agricultural flooding, transportation, national unity everything was a gift of the Nile civilization existed on both sides of the Nile harsh, desert climate beyond that essentially vertical country on banks of the Niles provided means of transportation and unity o inward-looking Egyptians thought they had figured everything out, especially death and the afterlife knew other people existed in the world, but felt they were inferior and it would be best to ignore them o challenge of Hyksos invasion; eventual internationalism between Middle and New Kingdom foreigners who succeeded in settling in N. Egypt, in the Delta of the Nile Egyptians unable to remove them for a couple centuries once Egyptians were able to unify their country and remove the Hyksos people, they decided they needed a more outward-looking policy and a more aggressive foreign policy marched up into Levant and if necessary engaging forcefully with the Mesopotamians and the Hittites did succeed economically with other countries, as well as diplomatically - culture: o pharoh as god-king; national bureaucracy recognition that he is a religious leader as well as military leader pharaohs delegated much work o pyramids, temples large, public buildings
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